History Flashcards

AP US History

Midnight Judges The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
Jay Treaty A treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S Jay was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. This resulted in a vitalization of the Democratic-Republicans and Pinckney’s Treaty with the Spanish.
Pinckney Treaty 1795 – Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans
XYZ Affair An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called “X,Y, and Z” that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Quasi-French War American response to XYZ Affair. Declared war on France by ordering seizure of French vessels and suspension of French trade.
Edmond Genet French diplomat sent to U.S. to recruit Ameridan aid in attacking British shipping.
Judiciary Act of 1789 In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. Allowed president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
Judiciary Act of 1801 One of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. This was Adams’s last attempt to keep Federalists power in the new Republican Congress. His goal was for federalists to dominate the judicial branch of government.
Aaron Burr United States politician who served as Vice President under Jefferson, he mortally wounded his political rival Alexander Hamilton in a duel and fled south (1756-1836)
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Elastic Clause The final paragraph of Article I, Section 8, of the constitution, which authorizes congress to pass all laws “necessary and proper” to carry out the enumerated powers.
Whiskey Rebellion In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton’s excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay’s Rebellion.
Alien and Sedition Acts Citizenship extended from 5 to 14 years. Laws passed by congress in 1798 that enabled the government to imprison or deport aliens and to prosecute critics of the government
Bill of Rights The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
nullification The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state’s opinion, violates the Constitution.
3/5 Compromise Slaves were to be 3/5 of a person in concerns with representation and taxation.
Great Compromise The agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
The Federalist Papers Series of newspaper articles written by John Hay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton which enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the anti-federalists. Wanted to build support for ratification.
Report on Public Credit The federal government would pay off its debs at face value, plus accumulated interest which at the time had a total of $54 million. This included the federal government taking on the debts by the states and paying for it as a country. Hamilton’s establishment of this act gave the country much needed unity because it brought the states together under the centralized government.
Report on Manufactures Rejecting the common assumption that America could prosper with an agricultural base. Hamilton argued that the new Republic should concentrate on developing industry. To nurture American industry in its formative years, he proposed the imposition of protective tariffs and the excise tax to raise revenue.
National Bank Proposed by Hamilton. Brought about strict vs loose constructionist interperations of the Constitution.
Olive Branch Petition On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Prohibitory Act Declared all of the colonies in open rebellion and suspended trade between Britain and the American colonies.
Common Sense A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain.
Articles of Confederation The nations first constitution was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or raise an army.
Declaration of Independence Document was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. It established the 13 colonies as independent startes, free frome rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this docuent.
Baron von Steuben A stern, Prussian drillmaster that taught American soldiers during the Revolutionary War how to successfully fight the British.
Battle of Trenton December 25th. Washington crosses Deleware River and takes advantage of he Hessains. Becuase they were celebrating Christmas. He takes the Hessains by suprise and its a victory for the Continental Army.
Battle of Saratoga Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Battle of Yorktown Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
General William Howe Stationed in New York who’s purpose was to aid Burgoyne’s troops in capturing the Hudson River valley if need be; rashly, he took the main British army to attack Philadelphia and abandoned Burgoyne, which led to the British loss in the important battle at Saratoga.
Valley Forge Place where Washington’s army spent the winter of 1777-1778 after Battle of Trentson, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton.
John Burgoyne Military leader in Revolutionary War, abandoned by William Howe. Seized Fort Ticonderoga easily, then experienced serious downfalls at Oriskany and Saratoga.
Fort Ticonderoga Buroyne initially captured this fort. Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold joined forces to capture the fort from British.
Benedict Arnold Foiled British plan to capture the Hudson. Then known as traitor because he offered to surrender West Point to the British.
General Cornwallis The British general who defied and order and was trapped at Yorktown forcing his surrender.
Treaty of Paris Under this agreement, the British recognized the United States as an independent nation, the borders of the new nation extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River, and the southern border stopped at Florida, which was returned to Spain. The west of the Mississippi River also went to Spain.
Ordinance of 1784 Based on proposal by Thomas Jefferson, divided western territory into 10 self-governing districts which could petition Congress for statehood when its population equaled the number of free inhabitants of the smallest existing state.
Ordinance of 1787 Prohibited slavery in Northwest territory – north of Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery.
Battle of Fallen Timbers Post-revolution war, British instogate Native American attacks, but “Mad” Anthony Wayne defeats them in Ohio Valley and gets the Greenville treaty, which cedes Native American land in Ohio Valley to U.S.
Shay’s Rebellion This conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes.
Newburgh Conspiracy The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in Newburgh, New York to address Congress about their pay. Unfortunately, the American government had little money after the Revolutionary War. They also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan.
Annapolis Convention Originally planning to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce, delegates from five states met at Annapolis in September 1786 and ended up suggesting a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation.
Manumission The freeing of individual enslaved persons.
Cadastral System Survey system that determines the value, extent, and ownership of land for purposes of taxation.
Critical Period Term used by historians to describe the United States under the Articles of Confederation.
Admiral de Grasse The French admiral who drove off the British navy and set Cornwallis up at Yorktown.
Judith Sargent Murray Wrote “On Equality of the Sexes”. She argued men and woman had an equal capacity for memory and women had a superior imagination. She concluded that most women were inferior to men in judgement and reasoning, but only bc they had not been trained.
Count de Rochambeau French general sent to America with a 6,000- soldier army to help the Americans against the British.
Samuel de Champlain A leading figure, intrepid soldier and explorer whose energy and leadership earned him the title “Father of New France”. He sailed up St Lawrence River, and founded the city of Quebec in 1608.
Robert de la Salle Robert de La Salle was responsible for naming Louisiana. He was the first European to float down the Mississippi river to the tip from Canada and upon seeing the river valley named Louisiana after his king Louis XIV in 1682.
Albany Plan of Union Plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown.
Fort Necessity A hastily built British fort where Washington attempted to defeat the French. However, the French took the fort and forced Washington to surrender.
Treaty of Utrecht 1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV’s France and the rest of Europe; vastly expanded British Empire.
Fort Duquesne French fort that was site of first major battle of French and Indian War; General Washington led unsuccessful attack on French troops and was then defeated at Fort Necessity, marking beginning of conflict.
William Pitt The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.
Treaty of Paris 1763, France lost all of American territory. Spanish lost Florida and Louisiana. Britain gained Canada and control of slave trade.
Seven Years War French and Indian War, fought between Great Britain and France, often considered to be the first world war because it involved most of the globe. Began over dispute for Ohio Valley.
George Grenville He became the Prime Minister of England in 1763. He was eager to reduce government spending, and he proposed the Sugar and Stamp acts to raise revenue in the colonies to defray the expenses of the French and Indian War and maintain Britain’s expanded empire in America.
Currency Act Restricted colonists from printing their own currency and use “hard” currency (gold and silver).
Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area. Last major Indian rebellion.
James Wolfe English general, led troops up steep cliff to capture Quebec which marked the beginning on the end of the French/Indian War.
Proclamation of 1763 A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Stamp Act Congress A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act. It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Constitutional Convention The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
Declaratory Act Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
Sons of Liberty A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Boston Massacre British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. First bloodshed of revolution.
Massachusetts Circular Letter A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768, which urged the colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation. It was followed by the Virginia Circular Letter in May, 1768. Parliament ordered all colonial legislatures which did not rescind the circular letters dissolved.
John Dickinson Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of “Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania” in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Writs of Assistance It was part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship’s cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that the Writs violated their rights as British citizens.
Gaspee Incident Ocurred to protest enforcement of Navigation Acts, residents of Rhode Island boarded Gaspee (British customs ship) and sank it.
Daughters of Liberty This orginization supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. They believed that way, the American colonies would become economically independent.
Boston Tea Party A raid on three British ships in Boston Harbor (December 16, 1773) in which Boston colonists, disguised as Indians, threw the contents of several hundred chests of tea into the harbor as a protest against British taxes on tea and against the monopoly granted the East India Company.
Intolerable Acts In response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop’s in barns and empty houses.
Quebec Act Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory.
First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
Committees of Correspondence Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Conciliatory Propositions Parliament planned to instruct the colonies to tax themselves. This was an unsuccessful attempt by Lord North to lessen the colonists’ anger. Separate majority of moderates from minorty of extremists.
General Thomas Gage He was the commander in chief of Britain’s military forces in America from 1763 to 1775. In April 1775, he issued the order for British troops to march on to concord and seize American weapons stored up there.
History Flashcards

Ch. 23 US History

a postwar society driven by conflict In the political arena, reactionaries and rebels battled for control of:a.people who had been lied to about the warb.a postwar society driven by conflictc.the southern voted.the northern citiese.President Woodrow Wilson’s legacy
35 In 1920, what percentage of homes in America had electricity?a.60b.25c.35d.75e.50
slapstick comedy Charlie Chaplin is best associated with:a.politicsb.stand-up comedyc.muckraking journalismd.slapstick comedye.alternative comedy
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania The first radio station to begin broadcasting regularly scheduled programs was located in:a.Detroit, Michiganb.Pittsburg, Pennsylvaniac.New York, New Yorkd.Boston, Massachusettse.Cleveland, Ohio
World War I What event pushed the development of the airplane?a.the development of the carb.the defense industryc.advertising on the radiod.World War Ie.political pressure
Charles Lindbergh Who was once known as the “Lone Eagle”?a.W. E. B. Du Boisb.Woodrow Wilsonc.Henry Fordd.Marcus Garveye.Charles Lindbergh
8 million In 1920, how many cars were registered in the United States?a.4 millionb.10 millionc.6 milliond.11 millione.8 million
was the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Amelia Earhart:a.was the first aviator to fly around the worldb.was the first woman to fly solo across the Atlanticc.was the first pilot to fly solo across the Atlanticd.was the first woman elected to Congresse.was an advocate of Prohibition
Yankee Stadium The “House That Ruth Built” is known as:a.Wrigley Fieldb.Tiger Stadiumc.Yankee Stadiumd.Ebbets Fielde.Red Sox Field
automobile industry Which one of the following is associated with Detroit, Michigan?a.airplane industryb.entertainment industryc.socialismd.automobile industrye.farming
Negro Leagues What were the professional baseball leagues for African Americans called?a.Negro Leaguesb.Minor Leaguesc.Black Leaguesd.Inner City Leaguese.African American Leagues
boxing William Harrison “Jack” Dempsey is best associated racing
football Harold Edward “Red” Grange is best associated with:a.being a great leaderb.baseballc.footballd.being a Communiste.boxing
Eigtheenth Which amendment to the Constitution is known as the Prohibition amendment?a.Seventeenthb.Twentiethc.Eighteenthd.Twenty-firste.Nineteenth
1920 The amendment to the Constitution that barred the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors went into effect in:a.1911b.1928c.1920d.1932e.1922
Warren G. Harding The desire to restore traditional values and social stability in 1920 led voters to elect as president:a.Woodrow Wilsonb.Warren G. Hardingc.Calvin Coolidged.William Jennings Bryane.Theodore Roosevelt
F. Scott Fitzgerald Who celebrated the jazz era’s spontaneity and sensual vitality?a.Sherwood Andersonb.Upton Sinclairc.Countee Cullend.F. Scott Fitzgeralde.James Weldon Johnson
F. Scott Fitzgerald The Roaring Twenties was dubbed the “Jazz Age” by:a.Upton Sinclairb.Louis Armstrongc.Ernest Hemingwayd.F. Scott Fitzgeralde.Langston Hughes
modernist student life at Princeton The novel This Side of Paradise concerned:a.immigrant life in New York Cityb.the lax enforcement of Prohibitionc.modernist student life at Princetond.fundamentalist attacks on modernisme.the beginnings of Miami’s tourist industry
opportunities for young men and women to experiment sexually with each other Petting parties were:a.opportunities for young men and women to experiment sexually with each otherb.opportunities for young men and women to learn about proper treatment of dogs and catsc.opportunities to raise money for the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animalsd.visits to the zoo so young people could get away from their parentse.parents’ chance to teach their children proper morals
Victorian values All of the following could be associated with flappers EXCEPT:a.bobbed hairb.swearingc.Victorian valuesd.pettinge.smoking and drinking
a degenerating society Conservative moralists saw the flappers as just another sign of:a.progressb.a degenerating societyc.equalityd.the work of the devile.women’s rights
were never allowed to marry After encountering strong resistance, Mabel Puffer and Arthur Hazzard:a.were married in New Hampshireb.were married in New Yorkc.were married in Canadad.were never allowed to marrye.were really not engaged to be married
was called the Great Migration The movement of southern blacks to the North:a.was called the Great Migrationb.created the rise of the KKKc.saw many African Americans return to Africad.was so large that southern agriculture was interruptede.meant industry could no longer hire whites
Aframerican James Weldon Johnson coined the term:a.bootleggerb.Negroc.progressivismd.Aframericane.flapper
Langston Hughes Who wrote “fed up With Jim Crow laws, / People who are cruel And afraid, / Who lynch and run, / Who are scared of me And me of them”?a.Claude McKayb.Langston Hughesc.Jean Toomerd.W. E. B. Du Boise.DuBose Heyward
Albert Einstein In physics, the theory of relativity was developed and explained by:a.Albert Einsteinb.Werner Heisenbergc.Isaac Newtond.Sir Francis Bacone.Max Planck
blended several musical traditions Jazz:a.was a European innovation emerging from modern classical musicb.blended several musical traditionsc.was invented by Benny Goodmand.helped calm the fears of rural fundamentalistse.inspired rebellious youth to violence
was led by Marcus Garvey The Universal Negro Improvement Association:a.sponsored black artists and writersb.was led by Marcus Garveyc.promoted Booker T. Washington’s idea of racial peace through accommodationd.was the forerunner of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)e.was conceived by W. E. B. Du Bois
said blacks should return to Africa Marcus Garvey:a.sought reconciliation with southern whitesb.said blacks should return to Africac.was a revered jazz saxophonistd.helped lead the suffragist movemente.was allied with W. E. B. Du Bois
He is “the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race….He is either a lunatic or a traitor” Which of the following did W.E.B. Du Bois say in his opposition to Marcus Garvey?a.”We have to rid ourselves of this viper.”b.”He will help only his friends and not the great mass of black people.”c.”He thinks that black people are only good enough to be plumbers.”d.”He believes himself to be the very second coming of Christ.”e.He is “the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race. . . . He is either a lunatic or a traitor.”
legal action against discrimination The NAACP action against discriminationb.the formation of a black political partyc.vocational and technical educationd.Garvey’s concept of social and political separation of blackse.strictly black membership
described the frenetic, hard-drinking lifestyle and the cult of robust masculinity that Hemingway himself epitomized The novels of Ernest Hemingway:a.portrayed utopian communities in a socialist societyb.attacked the corruption of machine politics in the large citiesc.traced the philosophical connections between twentieth-century America and eighteenth-century Britaind.described the frenetic, hard-drinking lifestyle and the cult of robust masculinity that Hemingway himself epitomizede.documented “the greatest, gaudiest spree in history”
government-funded programs The 1920s “New Era” was created by advances in all of the following organizationc.transportationd.the spread of mass consumerisme.government-funded programs
1927 Charles A. Lindbergh Jr., a St. Louis-based mail pilot, made the first solo transatlantic flight, traveling from New York to Paris in:a.1927b.1920c.1928d.1929e.1926
large crowds of spectators Baseball, like football, tended to attract:a.large crowds of spectatorsb.lower-class spectatorsc.women spectatorsd.immigrant spectators
Albert Einstein Who developed the theoretical basis for quantum physics?a.Albert Einsteinb.Werner Heisenbergc.Isaac Newtond.Sir Francis Bacone.Max Planck
Isaac Newton In physics, the theory that the fundamental concepts of space, time, matter, and energy are not distinct, independent things with stable dimensions was developed by:a.Albert Einsteinb.Max Planckc.Isaac Newtond.Sir Francis Bacone.Werner Heisenberg
the subconscious fascinated some people and scared other Modernists in art and literature came to believe that:a.nature’s reality can be captured in artb.human reason ruled all of and art had no, in the end, had rules that should be obeyede.the subconscious fascinated some people and scared others
experimentalist poet Gertrude Stein was a(n):a.disc jockeyb.freedom fighter in World War Ic.Dada artistd.member of Congresse.experimentalist poet
the rise of modernism in the arts The horrors of World War I accelerated:a.the need to rearmb.rebellion in the United Statesc.the formation of the United Nationsd.the rise of modernism in the artse.the birth of computers
was a controversial exhibition of modern art The Armory Show in 1913:a.was a controversial exhibition of modern artb.introduced many women to new clothing fashionsc.featured poetry readings by Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliotd.showed the continuing appeal of traditional valuese.led directly to woman suffrage
Edward Bellamy All of the following were prophets of modern art and literature EXCEPT:a.Ezra Poundb.T. S. Eliotc.Edward Bellamyd.Ernest Hemingwaye.Gertrude Stein
E.S. Eliot The Waste Land, a poem that became the favorite of many modernist readers because of its sense of disillusionment and its suggestion of a burned-out civilization, was written by:a.Franz Boasb.Gertrude Steinc.T. S. Eliotd.E. E. Cummingse.Ezra Pound
“real” life punctuated by the doomed, war-tainted love affairs of young Americans Ernest Hemingway wrote of:a.rational people dedicated to traditional valuesb.”real” life punctuated by the doomed, war-tainted love affairs of young Americansc.patriotic fervor among the American expatriate writers in Parisd.masculinity and a desperate search for lifee.hope and happiness in America’s heartland
painfully autobiographical Fitzgerald’s stories during the 1920s were:a.written for Hollywoodb.nonfictionc.painfully autobiographicald.about sciencee.not discovered until the 1960s
his first novel Hemingway used the phrase “lost generation” as the epigraph in:a.A Farewell to Arms (1929)b.Three Lives (1909)c.This Side of Paradise (1920)d.his first novele.The Waste Land (1922)
Gertrude Stein Who, in 1921, told Hemingway that he and his friends who had served in the war “are a lost generation?”a.Gertrude Steinb.Franz Boasc.Ezra Poundd.Ernest Hemingwaye.T. S. Eliot
Margaret Sanger Who was the New York nurse and midwife in the working-class tenements of Manhattan who observed many young mothers struggling to provide for their growing families?a.Gertrude Steinb.Amelia Earhartc.T. S. Eliotd.Ernest Hemingwaye.Margaret Sanger
Guinn v. United States(1915) Which court case or legal action brought the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments back to life?a.Abrams v. United States (1918)b.Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)c.Schenck v. United States (1917)d.Guinn v. United States (1915)e.Buchanan v. Worley (1917)
History Flashcards

21 Art History: African Art

What does the other world spouse represent? d. all of the above(the highest marks of beauty, having children, being married)
What do initiation rituals represent in the bwami system of the Lega people? c. moving up in status or levels
What does the mask above symbolize? a. the connection between the ancestors in the living and dead community
What is biiga doll used for? b. a fertility figure
What is depicted above? d. blolo bla
What is the name of the figure above? b. nlo byeri
What is nkanda? c. initiation rights
What does the middle figure in the image above represent? a. a European colonial administrator
What major change took place with the arrival of contemporary African art? c. adoption of modern materials
Inspiration sources, such as a surface design system called ______, are still rooted in tradition. b. uli
What is a kikaku? b. a three-sided roofed enclosure
What are ancestors regarded as? b. guardians for those left on earth
What do the exaggerated features of a biiga doll represent? c. fertility and health
Who is the artist of the painting above? b. Julie Mehretu
What type of mask is shown above? d. bwami
History Flashcards

Medieval Test Art History

In the mid-10th century, the eastern part of the Carolingian empire was consolidated under the rule of the ____. Ottonians
Which group of barbarian invaders at one time controlled part of Italy and formed a kingdom in southern France, and were forced into Spain by the Franks? visigoths
The art of medieval monasteries in Ireland is described as ____. Hiberno-Saxon
The ____ was the most typical object of prestige adornments in the medieval period. fibula
In the later Middle Ages, religious books were created for the private devotions of the laity. They were based on readers used by the monks. These books contained prayers to be read at specific times during the day and were popularly known as ____. Book of the Hours
It has been said that the author-portrait of Saint Matthew from the Lindisfarne Gospels shows classical influences. What supports this statement? The figure is seated as a philosopher or poet reading or writing
What manuscript is commonly considered the greatest of the extant early medieval Irish books? book of kells
Equestrian statues were reminders of Rome’s glory. Charlemagne returned to Rome after his coronation with an equestrian statue of Theodoric. Which statue served as the ultimate model for such equestrian portraits? marcus aureilus in rome
Irish or Celtic stone crosses are identifiable by which of the following? a circle intersecting the cross arms (their size and scale)
Because of their large scale, ____ are the exceptions of artistic production in Ireland and northern England. high crosses
The epic ____ records that heroes were buried with items of prestige, such as rings and brooches, as a testament to their greatness. Beowulf
What was the primary vehicle used in the Christianization of the British Isles? liturgical books
___ were centrally important to the revival of learning during Charlemagne’s reign. books, especially illuminated manuscripts
The Great Mosque at Córdoba has a hypostyle prayer hall with horseshoe-shaped arches adapted from which of the following? Visigoths
In the tenth century, Caliph al-Hakam II undertook major renovations of the Great Mosque at Córdoba in imitation of his ____ predecessors in Jerusalem and Damascus. Umayyad
The term Roman-like was adopted to describe the architecture of the Romanesque period because it relied on elements of Roman architecture such as ____. barrel and groin vaults based on the round arch
___ was the economic system that was gradually replaced by the growth of towns and cities during the Romanesque period. feudalism
The primary motivation for undertaking a pilgrimage, which was extremely dangerous and could often last a year, was ____. repentance; seek curation of an illness
____ is the theft of relics for holy purposes. furta sacra
Pilgrims believed that relics could ____. heal the body and soul
Saint-Sernin at Toulouse has been called a “pilgrimage type” church. Which of the following accounts for this designation? It had radiating chapels attached to the transept and ambulatory; it was en route to the shrine in Western Europe
The purpose of tribunes such as those found at Saint James at Santiago de Compostela and Saint-Sernin in Toulouse was ____. housed the overflow crowds on special occasions; buttress the weight of vaults
In the Romanesque period, church interiors became impressive acoustical settings for church services. Which of the following architectural elements allowed for the excellent acoustics? the continuous barrel vaulted naves
The monks of the ____ order were among the primary patrons of Romanesque sculpture. Cluniac
The ____ is the covered courtyard in a monastery that expressed the seclusion of the spiritual life and offered a foretaste of paradise. cloister
The Cistercian monk who criticized the rich outfitting of non-Cistercian churches and sculptural adornments of monastic cloisters was ____. Bernard of Clairvaux
The ____ is the semi-circular area above the lintel of a Romanesque portal, and often depicted the vision of Christ’s second coming. Tympanum
___ is the church most closely associated with the crusades. La Madeleine, Vèzelay
The ____ were mass armed pilgrimages whose purpose was to take control of Christian monuments in the Holy Land. crusades
The mission of the ____, the earliest crusading knights, was to protect Christians visiting Christian shrines in the Holy Land. Knights of Templar
The use of ornamented initials such as the Initial R in the Moralia in Job can be traced back to the ____ period. Hiberno-Saxon period
____ church is one in which the aisles are approximately the same height as the nave. “Hall” (Hallerkirche)
____, in northern Spain, boasts more Romanesque murals than anywhere else in Europe. Catalonia
The intersection of two barrel vaults creates which of the following? groin vault
The Bayeux Tapestry is unique in Romanesque art. Which of the following supports this claim? It depicted an actual event in full detail shortly after it occurred; provides a pictoral narrative of the Norman conquest of Ghgland
The Bayeux Tapestry is the conqueror’s version of history. It is a narrative that includes the battle sequences as well as the preparations for war. It is said that this is the most Roman of all Romanesque artworks. Which of the following supports this contention? column of Trajan
Who of the following coined the term Gothic? Giorgio Vasari
In the Gothic period, the focus of intellectual and religious life shifted from monasteries to ____. cathedrals
Visible on Laon Cathedral, ____ became a standard feature of French Gothic facades. rose windows
The sculptural program of the west facade of Chartres Cathedral proclaims the power and majesty of Jesus Christ. Which of the following elements unites all three doorways of the west portal of Chartres Cathedral? the episodes from the life of Christ are carved on capitals
The tympanum from the right portal of Chartres depicts the Virgin and Child, which hearkens back to the Romanesque portrayals of this theme as the Throne of Wisdom. Which of the following is the source for this depiction? Bzynatine Theotokos
The portal sculptural program for Chartres Cathedral is distinctly different from its Romanesque counterparts. Which of the following accounts for this distinction? prominence of mary on the portal program
Paris claimed to be the intellectual center of Gothic Europe. Its university faculty and the reputations of its masons supported this claim. Which of the following also provided support for this claim? it was the center for fine book production
What pose developed by the “court style” was typical of Late Gothic sculpture? S shaped curve
The Gothic style is said to have first appeared in which of the following areas? burgundy
Many Gothic cathedrals were dedicated to which of the following? the Virgin Mary
What is a distinctive feature of a hall church? the side aisles are as tall as the nave
Which of these churches embodies the essential characteristics of English Gothic architecture? Salisbury Cathedral
The royal portal of Chartres was carved in which style? early gothic
The development of the Rayonnant style is connected with which of the following? the court of Louis IX
Introduced in French Gothic architecture at Notre Dame in Paris, ____ is an external support that counters the outward thrust of the nave vaults. flying butressss
The frontality, stiff poses, and lack of modeling as seen in Berlinghieri’s Saint Francis Altarpiece reveals the ____ roots of his style. fundamentally medieval
____ was the leading Roman painter at the end of the 13th century. Pietro Cavallini
Elements of Giotto’s new style that appear in the Madonna Enthroned include ____. naturalism & classical modeling figures
One of Giotto’s innovations that moved away from the Italo-Byzantine style was the introduction of ____. naturalism
History Flashcards

U.S. History Chapter 3

What caused the deaths of most of the native population of Hispaniola in the early 1500s? an epidemic of smallpox
Which explorer initiated the Spanish charting of the Southeastern region? Ponce de León
Why did King Louis XIV first send French explorers to the Great Lakes region? to find a direct route to China
Which European explorer’s travels laid to rest the idea that a northwest passage to Asia existed? James Cook
Which North American region was the last to be explored by Europeans? Alaska
What was the first European colony established in North America? St. Augustine
Where were the first Europeans to establish a colony in North America from? Spain
The first permanent colony established by Europeans in North America was in what modern-day state? Florida
What was the main reason why the Spanish settlers established a colony in New Mexico rather than remaining in Florida? Most of the native people of Florida died of disease brought by settlers
What was the principal cause of the Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico? The Spanish had attempted to keep the Pueblos from practicing their native religion
How did the Spanish colonists react to the Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico? by ceasing to demand labor and goods from the Pueblos for tribute
How did the French settlers approach colonization in the New World differently from the Spanish? They sought to make alliances with the native peoples instead of subjugating them
In 1626, Peter Minuit became the director of the first Dutch colony in the Americas, which was located in which modern-day location? Cape Cod
Which of the following best describes most of the first English settlers to arrive at the colony of Jamestown? peasants who had been forced off their farms and sought work
What was the primary cause for the population growth in the American colonies in the early 1700s? immigration to the America’s from Europe
Aside from the British settlers, of what nationality were the largest number of European settlers to immigrate to the American colonies in the 1700s? German
What was the first conflict in the Americas that the colonists fought without the aid of colonial powers King Philip’s War
History Flashcards

Art History – Chapter 24

Throughout history, artists have regularly served political ends by using their art to make visual statements. Which of the following artists has created an overtly political statement with his/her work? Dorothea Lange
Which of the following artists created large-scale, kinetic sculptures? Alexander Calder
What message did Vera Mukhina convey in her work entitled The Worker and the Collective Farm Worker? She glorified the communal labor of the Soviet people
Which of the following artists developed the theory of neoplasticism or the new pure plastic art? Mondrian
Which of the following artists created a modern American art style combining Synthetic Cubism with jazz tempos and his perception of the fast-paced American culture? Stuart Davis
What style is described as compositions of shapes and forms abstracted from the conventionally conceived world Cubism
The Champs de Mars or The Red Tower by Robert Delaunay depicts which of the following structures? Eiffel Tower
Which of the following is executed in the Synthetic Cubist style? Still-Life with Chair-Caning
What message is portrayed in Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks? the pervasive loneliness of modern humans
Thomas Hart Benton, a Regionalist artist, focused his attention on which of the following subjects? the social history of Missouri
Which of the following artists did not depict themes of war? Matisse
In the artist’s eyes, the Fate of the Animals was almost a premonition of which historical event? World War I
Which of the following works demonstrates the Futurists’ interest in motion? Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash
Which of the following artists was a Berlin Dadaist? Hannah Höch
Which of the following artists shared Stieglitz’s concern to position photography as an art form with the same fine-art status as painting and sculpture? Edward Weston
Who is the artist who created a work of art that can be described as “a wickedly funny gift”? Man Ray
Her work is often described as autobiographical because of her unflinching self-portrait portrayals. She gives the viewer a personal glimpse into herself and suffering. Which of the following artists does this describe? Frida Kahlo
Who is the artist who created a scathing visual commentary on the military with his Fit for Active Service? Grosz
Which of the Blaue Reiter artists found animals superior in beauty, strength, innocence, and naturalness? Franz Marc
Henry Moore’s great series of reclining nudes is said to have been inspired by __________. a pre-Columbian figure, the Chacmool
A nonobjective work refers to work that __________. has no reference to the external appearance of the physical world
Of the following, who is the best example of a twentieth-century artist who believed that art should delight, inspire, and enhance our lives as human beings? Matisse
The Chrysler Building by William van Alen has elements from which of the following styles? Art Deco
Which phrase best expresses the sculptural style of Boccioni? dynamic movement
The work of Ernst Kirchner shows __________. subjects drawn from the industrialized urban bourgeoisie
Who is the Surrealist? Salvador Dalí
The hovering figure that served as a memorial to those who died in World War I was created by __________. Ernst Barlach
A painting that was done in reaction to World War I was __________. Max Beckmann’s Night
Which of the following statements about Dada is true? Dada had no fixed ideas
Who photographed the rural poor displaced by the Great Depression in the 1930s? Dorothea Lange
Which one of the following statements is not true? Surrealism ignored the ideas of psychoanalysis put forth by Jung and Freud.
The goal of Dalí’s “paranoiac-critical” method was to __________. create images of inner reality and irrationality as concrete as the world of physical reality
History Flashcards

History 1302

The South emerged from the Civil War with a strong, diversified economy. False
The Fifteenth Amendment freed the slaves. False
Waving “the bloody shirt” meant referring to the Civil War and the southern rebellion in order to discredit political opponents. True
In the North, the Civil War especially elevated the power of: business leaders
Emancipation had what impact on the South? It left the South’s labor system in disarray
At the end of the Civil War, the newly freed slaves were given: medical and legal assistance from the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
On what basis did President Lincoln claim the right to direct Reconstruction? Lincoln claimed constitutional provisions pertaining to presidential power gave him the authority.
Why did Congressional Republicans write the “Wade-Davis Manifesto”? to protest Lincoln’s veto of the Wade-Davis Bill and accuse Lincoln of exceeding his constitutional authority
Johnson’s Proclamation of Amnesty excluded the people he blamed for leading the South into secession. They were: the wealthy planters, merchants, and bankers
Southern efforts to recreate a society that looked similar to the Confederacy had what political impact? Moderate Republicans moved to support Radical Republicans’ Reconstruction policies.
The Radical Republicans understood that essential to maintaining Republican control of the federal government was: the right of ex-slaves to vote
The main issue that caused the dispute between Congress and President Johnson was: a growing conflict of opinion over Reconstruction policy
Andrew Johnson was: impeached by the House but not convicted by the Senate
All of the following statements about the Fifteenth Amendment are true EXCEPT: it ended slavery
Why did service in the Union army or navy benefit many freedmen? It provided training in leadership and alerted them to new opportunities in economic advancement and civic leadership.
During Reconstruction, all of the following are true about African American involvement in the political arena during Reconstruction EXCEPT: several African Americans were elected as governors
Northern voters supported Grant mainly because of his military record
Why was the 1876 Supreme Court decision in United States v. Cruikshank (which pertained to the Colfax Massacre) significant? It decided that states’ rights trumped federal authority when it came to protecting freed blacks from white terrorists.
All of the following are reasons why Republicans lost control in the South EXCEPT: black voters switched to support the Democrats
What happened after the end of Reconstruction? The protections of black civil rights crumbled under the pressure of restored white rule and unfavorable Supreme Court decisions.
What was the most significant enduring legacy of Reconstruction? The passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.
Hamilton Fish Grant’s secretary of state
Horace Greeley opposed Grant in 1872 presidential election
Andrew Johnson treason must be made infamous and traitors must be improvrished
Pinckney B. S. Pinchback elected lieutenant governor of Louisina
Hiram Revels black Mississippi native elected to senate
Edwin M. Stanton secretary of war under Johnson until 1867
Alexander H. Stephens former vice president of the confederacy elected to US Senate representing Georgia in 1865
Henry Ward Beecher prominent northern minister who preached sectional reconciliation
Charles Sumner senator from Massachusetts, leading Radical Republican
Samuel J. Tilden was the Democratic presidential candidate in 1876
Power sources (such as water, coal, wood, electricity, and oil) were more expensive in the United States than in other nations around the world. False
The number of inventions registered at the U.S. Patent Office remained fairly constant through the nineteenth century. False
Most Americans experienced a rising standard of living in the late nineteenth century. True
By the 1880s, most states had outlawed child labor. False
Interconnected transportation and communications networks were essential to the origins of the Second Industrial Revolution in the United States because: they facilitated the emergence of a national and even international markets for American goods and services
Crédit Mobilier is indicative of the type of shady big business financial practices that occurred during the Gilded Age because it: bribed officials and grossly overcharged for its services
The work of Cornelius Vanderbilt helps emphasize that: business consolidation put the control of railroads in few hands
What was one main reason electric motors were significant to the industrialization of the late nineteenth century? They freed factories to locate wherever they wished and not just by waterfalls and coal deposits.
During the Gilded Age, the rich were getting richer and: many other people were at least better off
For industrial workers in Gilded Age America: working and living conditions remained precarious
All of the following statements are reasons why child labor was problematic EXCEPT: child laborers took well-paying jobs from legal immigrants
Why was there a growth of craft unions during the Civil War? The war sparked an increased demand for skilled labor.
How did the AFL differ from the Knights of Labor? The AFL was a federation of national organizations, each of which retained a large degree of its autonomy, while the Knights organization was more centralized.
Marxism, one strain of socialism, was imported to the United States mainly by: Germans
Andrew Carnegie wrote The Gospel of Wealth
Eugene V. Debs presidential candidate of the Socialist party of America
Henry Clay Frick president of the Homestead Steelworks
Jay Gould prince of railroad robber barrons
Joe Hill labor organizer executed for murder
Dennis Kearney organized Workingman’s party of California
J. Pierpont Morgan consolidated steel industry into the United States Steel Corporation
Terrence V. Powderly led the Knights of Labor
John D. Rockefeller founded Standard OIl
Alvah Roebuck founded a mail-order business
Under the Bourbons, there was a well-planned and effective effort to disenfranchise African American voters. False
In the 1880s, southern politics remained surprisingly open and democratic. True
The frontier Indian wars began with the closing of the frontier in 1890. False
The Homestead Act of 1862 encouraged the development of thriving western farms. False
The New South gospel emphasized all the following EXCEPT: women’s rights
In the late 1800s, the South experienced major increases in the production in all of the following areas EXCEPT: automobiles
King Cotton survived the Civil War and expanded over new acreage: because traditional overplanting of the crop continued
Why did tenant farmers have no incentive to take care of the farmland that they were on? They did not own the land on which they farmed.
Bourbons: was a term used to refer to the New South political leadership meant to depict that leadership as reactionary
Perhaps the ultimate paradox of the Bourbons’ rule was that their paragons of white supremacy tolerated: a lingering black voice in politics
The very poor generally did not migrate to the West because: they generally could not afford the expense of transportation, land, and supplies
All of the following groups were prominent in the West during the late nineteenth century EXCEPT: slaves
Buffalo soldiers were: black soldiers who served in the West
Six states were created from the western territories in the years 1889-1890. These states were not admitted before 1889 because: Democrats in Congress were reluctant to create states out of territories that were heavily Republican
Following the 1867 “Report on the Condition of the Indian Tribes,” Congress decided that the best way to end the Indian wars was: to persuade the Indians to live on out-of-the-way reservations
The conventional explanation that the buffalo disappeared from the plains due to overhunting by whites in the West is incomplete because: it does not account for environmental factors, such as changes in climate and competition for forage with other animals
Why was Helen Hunt Jackson’s book A Century of Dishonor so influential? It affected American attitudes toward Indians in a way similar to how Uncle Tom’s Cabin mobilized the abolitionist movement a generation earlier.
Which of the following statements about the cowboys’ frontier is NOT true? Blacks were generally not permitted to be cowboys.
“Cowtown” refers to: towns that grew up in the West as a result of the expanding cattle industry
Why was the expansion of railroads significant to the growth of the cattle industry? As the railroads increased the ability to ship huge numbers of western cattle, more “cowtowns” were established in the West.
Range wars erupted by the late nineteenth century because of: conflicts over land and water rights between ranchers and farmers
The fight for survival in the trans-Mississippi West made men and women: more equal partners than were their eastern counterparts
J. M. Chivington led massacre of 200 Indians at Sand Creek
Benjamin Pap Singleton foremost promoter of black immigration to the West
James Buchanan Duke founded American tobacco company
Joseph Glidden promoter of barbed-wire
Henry Grady editor of the Atlanta Constitution
Helen Hunt Jackson author of A Century of Dishoner
James Oliver made improved plows for Plains farmers
Rutherford B. Hayes the Indian wars were broken promises by Americans
Joseph McCoy livestock dealer that helped establish Abilene, Kansas as the first successful cowtown
Frederick Jackson Turner wrote the Frontier had shaped American National charater
History Flashcards

World History FLVS 3.01

Oral tradition the spoken relation and preservation, from one generation to the next, of a people’s cultural history and ancestry.
Griot a West African word for a person who plays music and tells the legends, myths, and stories of a people.
Sahara desert Whats the largest desert in the world?
Sahel an arid area at the southern edge of the Sahara desert, which stretches from Mauritania to Chad.
Ghana rose from the Soninke people in the grasslands north of the Niger River.
Mali The kingdom of the Malinke rose as the Ghana Empire declined, ultimately becoming the —– Empire.
Songhai the largest of the three west african empires.
Nok what culture is known for beautiful figurines made out of clay?
Yoruba a member of a people of southwestern Nigeria and Benin
iron smelting What technology came from the Hittites in Anatolia and ultimately reached the Nok people?
Trade what is the real reason for the development and rise of the great West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai?
Aimists :the belief in the existence of individual spirits that inhabit natural objects and phenomena.
Matrilineal :tracing decent through the mother’s ancestors.
Trade of gold and salt What did the Ghana empire rely heavily on?
Ghana Who taxed traders?
Malinke :also known as Mandinke, is a large ethnic group in West Africa that became known as the Mali Empire.
Sundiata Keita Who was the founder of the Mali Empire?
Sundiata Keita Who reestablished the gold and salt trade that had declined after the fall of Ghana?
Sunni Ali the Great Who was the founder of the Songhai empire?
Sunni Ali the Great Who led the Songhai in conquering the cities of Mema and Timbuktu?
1 Kings and Nobility2 Freemen3 Slaves and War Captives What was the Songhai Class structure?
c What gave the Kingdom of Ghana a military advantage over its neighbors? (5 points) Trade of salt and spices Climate and water access Iron and horses Gold and silver
b In what way was the empire of Ghana different from the later empire of Mali? (5 points) Ghana was ruled by Malinke leaders, and Mali was ruled by Soninke leaders. Ghana was mostly animists, and Mali had a Muslim-following leadership. Ghana was patrilineal, and Mali followed a matrilineal system Ghana was influenced by Arab architecture, and Mali was not.
b Why was Timbuktu an important location in Mali’s empire? (5 points) It was the capital of Ghana. It was a center for learning. It controlled the gold and salt trade. It was the earliest city founded in West Africa.
a How did Sundiata contribute to the Mali Empire? (5 points) He recaptured gold-producing areas of West Africa. He established Mali’s power in the region with his pilgrimage to Mecca. He created new architectural methods that are still used today. He made peace agreements with the Soso kingdom.
b Who was Sunni Ali? (5 points) He was a great Soninke warrior. He was a great leader of Songhai. He was a great leader of Mali. He went on a pilgrimage to Mecca.
a What important natural resource in West Africa did the Songhai Empire control? (5 points) Salt mines in the Sahara Desert Nile River Atlas Mountains The only access to the Atlantic Ocean
a Which of the following contributed to the start of civil wars and Mali’s decline? (5 points) Struggles over the line of succession Fights over different interpretations of the Quran Family fights over control of the ivory trade Struggles over control of the slave trade
d Which event marks the final stage in the collapse of the Songhai Empire? (5 points) Revolts from deposed kings Civil wars among the priests Weakening from the slave trade An invasion from Morocco
d What geographical feature contributed to why North Africa developed so differently from southern Africa? (5 points) Niger River Inland Delta Sahel Region Sahara Desert
c What role did the geography of the Sahel play in the rise of the medieval African kingdoms? (5 points) It provided access to the large ports on the Atlantic. The lack of fresh water made rulers here more warlike. It provided a place for trade between the North and the South. The desert was difficult for outsiders to invade.
History Flashcards

Art History: Early Medieval Art I Quiz

Which of the following is an example of the Oseberg ship? Black one with a swirl on the end
Which of the following is a traditional type of Scandinavian architecture? horizontal log construction
What was the Oseberg ship used for? a graveship for women of high rank
What part of a ship is the prow? the most forward part of a ship’s bow
Which of the following is an example of Ottonian architecture? clerestory, gallery, & arcade
The Vikings were seamen from which of the following countries? Norway, Denmark, & Sweden
Which of the following is an example of timber architecture? wattle and daub
The Stave Church in Borgund, Norway is an example of _________________. timber architecture
Of what materials were Viking helmets made? tight-fitting leather or metal
What decorative features were used on the prow of the Oseberg ship? a serpent head, and carved intertwined animals
History Flashcards

US History Midterm

French & Indian War War between Britain and France that started in the Americas and moved to Europe. Fought from 1754 to 1763. Indians helped French. The British won the war and gained the control of eastern North America. Ended with a Treaty of Paris in 1763. Drove French out of North America.
Mercantilism A Policy in which a Nation could accumulate wealth and become a richer and more powerful nation. They would do this by exporting more goods than they imported thus, not giving money to rival nations. Colonization was an attempt towards mercantilism because of the products that were made in the Americas.
John Locke An Enlightenment thinker from UK. Believed people deserved natural rights of Life, liberty, and property. If a government doesn’t give these rights, the people are able to leave the government Important because it gave ideas to many colonists when they were trying to break from UK.
Proclamation Line A line developed in 1763 to give Indians the land west of Appalachian Mountains. This act was because the British thought it to be cheaper to not fight with Indians than to fight. This meant that settlers couldn’t settle west but many still did.
Enlightenment A movement in the early 1700’s. The Belief that society’s problems could be solved through reason and science.
Common Sense -Written by Thomas Paine -Discussed independence from Britain, union of new states, and republican state Gov’ts-Said the king was the greatest enemy of liberty-If America was free they could trade with entire world
Sons of Liberty -A group of men who were opposed to British taxes. -Famous leader- Sam Adams. -They led violent protest and killed, tarred, and feathered many tax collectors.-They burned houses and caused all tax collectors to resign.
Stamp Act (1765)- A tax that made American colonist pay a tax on all printed materials, including newspapers, books, court docs, contracts, and land deeds. Brought about protests of people saying that they had no representation in Parliament so they shouldn’t have to pay taxes to the British.
Townshend Duties a tax that raised price on glass, lead, paper, paint, tea
Battle of Saratoga Turning point in the war because British were going to New York from Canada. The French then realized that they could fight their old rival
Declaration of Independence -written on July 2, 1776-Written by Thomas Jefferson-Used many of Paine’s Ideas-Used many enlightenment ideas
Boston Tea Party 1773 patriots revolted by throwing tea into the harbor in response to a harsh tax on Dutch Tea. The tax was an attempt by the British to sell their tea to the colonists.
Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) An act by Parliament that closed the ports in Boston until they paid for the tea they had destroyed. Along with this, Bostonians had to house British troops in their houses. Sparked more revolts by colonists.
Battles at Lexington and Concord The British went to Lexington to arrest Hancock and Adams but they met resistance in Lexington and killed eight. They did not arrest the two men but on their way back to Boston they were ambushed by hundreds of militia men.200 British were killed.
First continental Congress held in Philadelphia in 1774. Every colony but Georgia met, and the idea of being an American was first created. Created a boycott on British goods across the colonies in an attempt to remove the intolerable acts.
Second Continental Congress Philadelphia in 1775. Congress assumed responsibility for the war with Britain. The continental Army was set up and was led by George Washington.
Battle of Yorktown 1781 Washington trapped Cornwallis’ troops at Yorktown, VA. The French Navy arrived at the perfect time and stopped the British from leaving. British surrender. Treaty of Paris in 1783 was signed giving the US independence and generous boundaries
Articles of Confederation Drafted in 1777 by the Continental Congress. Design for the Gov’t was a loosely constructed 13 states not a strong central Gov’t. In this Gov’t each state had one vote. No president. Congress had no power to tax. To amend articles you needed all 13 states to vote yes.
Constitutional Convention 1787. A convention in the Pennsylvania State House where the Articles on Confederation were supposed to be revised. Instead they were thrown out and a new constitution was drafted
Virginia Plan James MadisonCongress has power to tax and regulate commercePower divided amongst the Legislative, Judicial, and Executive branchesStates with more population would have more powerCalled for a strong president
New Jersey Plan William PatersonCongress has powers to regulate commerce and taxStates all have the same powerPreserved an executive committee rather than adopting a singular PresidentStates remained more powerful than the Federal Gov’t
The Great Compromise Roger ShermanSenate would have equal representation with to representatives from each stateHouse of Representatives would represent populationSupported federalism (divided power among federal and state Gov’ts)To Satisfy the South:-Slavery would no longer be imported after 1808-Three Fifths Compromise-each slave was three-fifths of a person-Slaves were to be returned to their owners
Federalists Favored ratification (change the Articles of Confederation)Famous-George Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Ben FranklinStressed the weakness of the AoCStronger Nation would get rid of IndiansHad support in ports and other centralized locationsHad support of Newspapers
Anti-Federalists Opposed ratificationDisliked the lack of a Bill of RightsSaid the new constitution would put in place a strong central gov’tFamous- Sam Adams, John Hancock, George Clinton, Richard Lee, Patrick Henry
Bill of Rights First ten amendments of the constitution. Written by James Madison. They avoided anything that said all men are created equal which helped to deny slave rights. Freedom of Religion, speech, press, assembly,petition; protection from unreasonable searches and seizures(captures), right to speedy and free trial. Was left open to further amendments.
Shays Rebellion Led by Daniel Shays, 1787. He led 1000 farmers to seize the Springfield Armory and shut down the courts. It was a reaction to the Articles of Confederation not being able to trade with other nations. Farmers could not sell their produce internationally.
Washington’s Farewell Address He recognized that the country needed him to set a precedent of only running the country for 2 terms so he didn’t run again in 1796. He had defeated Indians, opened the west for settlement, suppressed the Whiskey rebellion, kept them out of European Wars, and helped fund the debts. In his farewell address he told his successors to avoid alliances that may lead to wars. He also told them to leave their own desires away and do what’s best for the nation.
Interpretations of Constitution Federalists interpreted the Constitution Broadly and Democratic Republicans interpreted it Strictly.
John Marshall Supreme Court Justice who formed judicial review (The court could determine if acts of Congress and the President were constitutional). He also interpreted the Constitution broadly.
Marbury v. Madison court case that established judicial review. Marbury (Federalist) was appointed for Justice of Washington DC. James Madison refused to deliver the papers and John Marshall ruled in favor of Madison. They were from different parties so it pleased Madison (Democratic Republican) but it also gave the courts judicial review, which DRs didn’t want.
McCulloch vs. Maryland State officials in Maryland were raising heavy taxes on the National Banks of that area so their local banks would grow. Marshall said that Congress had the power to make a National Bank and no state could destroy a bank with taxes.
Embargo of 1807 A failed attempt by Thomas Jefferson to suspend trade with the British, thus ruining their economy. The embargo did the opposite of what it intended to do and it crippled the US economy. Gained support for the Federalists in the North.
Lewis and Clark Meriwether Lewis and Will Clark were sent to explore the territory purchased in Louisiana Purchase. Exploration happened in 1804. The men were guided by Sacajawea and her husband.
Alien Act The president could arrest and deport immigrants who criticized the federal Gov’t
Sedition Act allowed juries to acquit defendants who proved the literal truth of their statements. In this system defendants were guilty until proven innocent
Revolution of 1800 Thomas Jefferson took office and he set out to change things that had been done before. Encouraged Congress to Drop the Alien and Sedition Acts and the taxes on unlike goods, wanted to pay all of the debt down, increased foreign trade, sold new federal lands to pay it down.
War of 1812 War with Britain over the repeated economic attacks made by Britain (Impressments, banned direct voyages to Europe). War ended with Treaty of Ghent
Louisiana Purchase 1803. Gave land from Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains to the US. Thomas Jefferson bought the land from the French for $15 million. This contradicted Jefferson’s principles because he was in favor a strict constitution but he as president went out and bought land.
Treaty of Ghent A treaty in which both sides of the War of 1812 restored prewar boundaries and moved on. This was because both sides were exhausted of war. Was good news for US because the news was broken shortly after the news of the Battle of new Orleans. This made it look like Jackson had caused the Treaty. Treaty signed in Belgium.
Battle of New Orleans The American’s greatest victory where Andrew Jackson helped to massacre the British
Election of 1824 (Corrupt Bargain) Jackson, Clay, Adams, and Crawford all ran. The House of Reps chose Adams because Henry Clay had supported him. After Adams became President, he appointed Henry Clay as his Secretary of State. This was seen as a corrupt bargain by Andrew Jackson
Tariff of Abominations An especially high tariff on incoming goods. This would create a better market for selling American goods to the south and it saved American Industry in the North. The South was unhappy because they did not want to have to pay more because the imported goods before were cheaper than the goods that were coming from the North.
Bank war with “Monster Bank” Jackson dislikes the Second Bank of the US. He vetoes the renewal of the bank in 1832. He said it was dangerous to liberty, unauthorized and against the rights of the states. The Whigs were formed in response and Henry Clay and Daniel Webster promoted protective tariffs, internal improvements and a National Bank
Spoils System A system that president Jackson used to get people to be loyal. If one remained loyal to Jackson’s party, he would then reward them with political positions around him.
Nullification Crisis Happened in 1833 in response to the Tariff of Abominations. John Calhoun of South Carolina who was Jackson’s VP at the time wanted to nullify. South Carolina decided to nullify the tariff and refused to pay federal taxes or they were going to secede
Jacksonian Democracy A party of Democrats who followed Jackson. They helped him to win the Presidential election of 1828 by a large margin. They wanted strong states and weak gov’ts that would not interfere with slavery
Trail of Tears The Jackson administration had talked to a small group of Cherokees that didn’t have any power over the other Indians and they agree to leave to Oklahoma. In 1838, 16,000 Native Americans left their homes and walked to Oklahoma. ¼ of the people died along the way.
Monroe Doctrine A foreign policy doctrine to tell the great European powers that they were not going to stop the Latin American Colonies from liberating themselves.
Eli Whitney Invented Interchangeable parts that changed the production of things forever. It made items, which were generally hard to replace, easy to switch out a broken piece. He also invented the more famous cotton Gin in 1793, making the separation of cottonseeds from the cotton much faster. This led to the need from more factories in the North and Cotton became over half of the value of all US exports.
Immigration In the 1840’s People from Ireland and Germany came to America. They left their home country because of a Potato Famine (Ireland) and a failed Political Revolution (Germany). The Immigrants went into Ellis Island in New York when they first arrived. Most were Catholic and Jewish, they were met with great resistance by Protestants (Nativists)
First Industrial Revolution A time in America where the country had a boom in industrial production. Textile Mills (created by Sam Slater), Full Mills (For example the Lowell mill), Factory girls working(Lowell and other factories), Interchangeable parts(Invented by Eli Whitney), and Communication Systems(created by Samuel B. Morse).
Missouri Compromise (1820) Drafted by Henry Clay Maine was entered as a free state and Missouri would be entered as a slave state. Any new state south of the Southwestern corner of Missouri would be entered as a slave state.
Second Great Awakening A religious movement in the early 1800’s that was started by the protestants to try and revive the religious faith of the country. This ultimately led to other movements because it showed people that they can openly speak about what they believe in.
Women’s Rights Movement Movement that worked for greater rights and opportunities for women. Began with the Seneca Falls Convention in New York in 1848. Women worked for rights like suffrage (the right to vote), equality in clothing, and property rights
Nat Turner’s Rebellion A man who believed that he had a theophany and he was supposed to lead the slaves to freedom. He went to an armory and killed 60 people. Later he was found and executed.
Abolition Movement A movement to end slavery led by William Garrison. He wrote the liberator and was in favor of emancipation. People worked to spread the word about abolitionist movement by going to churches and handing out pamphlets. Many people were against slavery and spoke at these meetings (Fredrick Douglass, the Grimke Sisters). The movement met much resistance in the South and the North ended up going to war with the South.
Public School Reform Horace Mann was a senator from Massachusetts who wanted to give children the adequate schooling needed. He advances public schools around the country. With his help double the amount of kids attended schools, teachers were not allowed to punish, teachers were trained professionally, and all schools were tax supported. This really increased the literacy rate in the US as other states followed his plan.
Penitentiary Reform Dorothea Dix was a woman who in 1841was teaching Sunday school in prisons and she noticed that the prisoners weren’t receiving the right treatment and care that they needed. She worked to try and make prisoners feel sorrow for their sins (penitent means sorrow). After her, the Pennsylvania System and the Auburn System were created for prisoners. The Auburn System was more popular because it was cheaper.
Penn-Solitary reform You had your own room and yard in which to exercise
Auburn- Group reform Slept in your own room but worked with others during the day
Temperance Movement A movement to stop people from abusing alcohol. American Temperance Society was set up to help people to stop abusing it. Neal Dow Played a large role because in 1851 he passed the Maine law prohibiting any alcohol sales in the town of Portland. Many laws were passed after this in other states.
William Lloyd Garrison Was the leading abolitionist. He published the Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper. That way he could spread his ideas around the country. He founded the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Fredrick Douglass A former slave who spoke at abolitionist meetings across the country. He told personal accounts of slavery and touched many people’s hearts with his story.
Transcendentalism The belief that one can find more about themselves through nature. Leading members-Thoreau and Emerson.
Texas Independence Texas breaks off of Mexico because they want more independence from Santa Anna and his strict leadership. They form the Lone Star Republic headed by Sam Houston.
Oregon Territory Marcus and Narcissa Whitman went on the Oregon Trail out to Oregon Territory. They set up a compound along the way, attracting several other settlers to the West. Mountain men and others previously went through this territory and they explored the territory before the Whitmans.
Mexican-American war A war over the Texas, New Mexico, California territory. 1845-Zach Taylor sends his troops down to the Mexican border and Polk declared war. The US were much more powerful and they ended the war in 1847 after the siege of Mexico City. This Victory gave the US all of the Northern third of Mexico.
Manifest Destiny the belief that it is the United States’ destiny from God to have complete control of the United States. This Belief led to the expansion of the United States to the west
Early Western Migration Started by John Fremont because of the beauty that he described in the other lands. Early Migration was driven by Manifest Destiny. California Gold Rush happened in 1849 when people found out that there was Gold in California.
Compromise of 1850 Written by Henry Clay to compromise over issue of Slavery-California would be put in as a free state-New Mexico and Utah would be decided over popular sovereignty-The slave trade not slavery would be ended in Washington DC-A new Strict Fugitive Slave Law would be enforcedTexas sold New Mexican claims for $10 million
Republican Party A party formed that was against slavery and the Kansas-Nebraska Act. It was formed in 1854. Abe Lincoln was a republican president. They wanted Kansas to be admitted as a free state, and they were against popular sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe about a slave named Uncle Tom and the harshness f slavery. This cause uprising in the North and their was a large push for the abolishment of slavery. This book was banned in the South. This made the South very upset and cause many people to look towards seceding. This book sold over 300,000 copies.
Dred Scott vs. Sanford(1857) Supreme Court Case between a Missouri Slave (Dred Scott) who was suing for his freedom from his owner. Scott had lived with his owner in a free state for a few years but was still enslaved. The Chief Justice was Robert B Taney and he ruler against Dred Scott because he was property so he could not sue, the case said the Missouri Compromise was Unconstitutional, and it was illegal for Congress to take property away from someone without due process.
Lincoln- Douglas Debates A series of seven debates between Stephen A. Douglas(the little Giant) and Abe Lincoln(Honest Abe). They were both running for the US senate position in Illinois in 1858.
Stephen Douglas Was in favor of Popular SovereigntyWanted to Annex Texaswanted the votes of democrats
Abe Lincoln Spoke of right and wrongNot for equal rights for blacks, he was for Natural rights for all (life, liberty, Property)
John Brown A man who wanted to lead a fight against slavery. He attacked Harper’s Ferry in Virginia because of its central location and he was captured by officials and killed. He had viewed himself as an angel of God. Tensions were raised more and Southerners began to prepare for a war. The Border Ruffians in Kansas also burned his home. In retaliation he killed 5 proslavery men in a nearby town
Secession South Carolina was the first state to leave (1860) because of the result of the election. They felt that they had no voice. They created the Confederate States of America in 1861. They were followed by 6 other southern states and Jefferson Davis was their president.
Nativism the belief that someone who is a native-born white American is superior to a newcomer.
Election of 1860 Democrats, Constitutional Unionists and Republicans all had candidates
Democrats in the Election of 1860 Stephen A. Douglas, John BreckinRidge
Stephen A. Douglas -Northern Democrat-Illinois-Wanted Popular Sovereignty to decide the issue of slavery
John BreckinRidge -Southern Democrat-Kentucky-Federal Government must protect slavery
Constitutional Unionists in the Election of 1860 John Bell
John Bell TenneseeFederal government should support slavery and defend the Union
Republicans in the Election of 1860 Abe Lincoln
Abe Lincoln IllinoisSlavery is not allowed
Underground Railroad A way to get slaves out of the South. They used railroad terms to disguise their movement. Harriet Tubman is one of the most famous for her courageous efforts to keep returning to the South to get hundreds of black slaves.
Popular Sovereignty A type of democracy where people of an area vote on how they would like things. This is important to slavery because people thought that they should have slavery in some states and not in others. This method does not work however as is seen in the Kansas Nebraska Act because it leads to violent protests and fights.
Kansas-Nebraska Act Senator Douglas introduced a bill to set up Nebraska and Kansas as two different states, Kansas being entered as a slave state and Nebraska as a free state. The bill was passed in 1854 and it nullified the Missouri Compromise because the area of Kansas had been free for over 30 years. Led to the creation of the Republican Party.
Bleeding Kansas Border Ruffians from Mississippi would enter into Kansas and persuade people to vote for slavery because Mississippi was a slave state. It exposed the weaknesses of Popular Sovereignty. Two governments had been created in Kansas and they had opposing views on slavery. The Proslavery Capital was Lecompton and the antislavery capital was Topeka. The bloody part of this was when Lawrence was burned by the Border Ruffians (wanted slavery). The fights went on for weeks as both sides attacked each other.