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History Chapter 2

Religious dissension in England the first half of the seventeenth century resulted in: a civil war.
When comparing English colonies to Spanish ones: England sent more people to the Americas in the seventeenth century.
For Native Americans along the Atlantic Coast, disease and: environmental factors dramatically altered their way of life.
In regards to geography, English colonies: were in colder climates when compared to Spanish colonies.
The Virginia Company can be called a failure primarily because: it ultimately did not make money.
When comparing the Chesapeake colonies to the New England settlements: here were more indentured servants in the Chesapeake region.
Who was most likely to build the best relationships with the Native Americans? Puritans
The separation of church and state in Massachusetts during the seventeenth century: is similar to the way the government is conducted in today’s United States.
______ describes best the actions of the Puritan leaders in Massachusetts Bay. Intolerant
Anne Hutchinson’s trial demonstrated that: church elders lacked tolerance.
The key to more economic equality in New England when compared to the Chesapeake colonies was that New England had more: landowners.
As the sixteenth century progressed in New England, the growing commerce: brought into conflict religious and economic values.
The Half-Way Covenant of 1662 addressed: generational conflicts.
At the heart of the English Civil War was: whether Puritans should separate from the Church of England.
Who would most admire today’s America with its constitutional protections of equal rights for all? Levellers
In 1607, the colonists who sailed to Jamestown on three small ships: chose an inland site partly to avoid the possibility of attack by Spanish warships
The 104 settlers who remained in Virginia after the ships that brought them from England returned home: were all men, reflecting the Virginia Company’s interest in searching for gold as opposed to building a functioning society.
Which one of the following lists these colonies in the proper chronological order by the dates they were founded, from the earliest to the latest? Jamestown, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island
Why did King Henry VIII break from the Catholic Church? He wanted a divorce, and the Pope refused to grant it.
Which one of the following statements is true of Queen Mary of England, who reigned from 1553 to 1558? She temporarily restored Catholicism as the state religion of England.
Why did Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh fail in their attempts to colonize the New World? The government provided insufficient financial support.
During the reign of __________, the English government turned its attention to North America by granting charters to Humphrey Gilbert and Walter Raleigh for the establishment of colonies there. Elizabeth I
Just as the reconquest of Spain from the Moors established patterns that would be repeated in Spanish New World colonization, the methods used in which one of the following countries anticipated policies England would undertake in America? Ireland
Why did England consider Spain its enemy by the late 1500s? Because of religious differences: England had officially broken with the Roman Catholic Church, while Spain was devoutly Catholic.
How did Richard Hakluyt explain his claim that there was a connection between freedom and colonization? English colonization would save the New World from Spanish tyranny.
All of the following contributed to the English social crisis of the late sixteenth century EXCEPT: a lower birth rate, which made it difficult to find workers for new industries.
As a result of British landowners evicting peasants from their lands in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: efforts were made to persuade or even force those who had been evicted to settle in the New World, thereby easing the British population crisis.
Which one of the following is true of poverty in seventeenth-century Great Britain? About half of the population lived at or below the poverty line by the end of the seventeenth century.
In Great Britain, the idea of working for wages: was associated with servility and the loss of liberty.
What did English settlers in North America believe was the basis of liberty? land
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History 146 – T

When comparing English colonies to Spanish ones: England sent more people to the Americas in the 17th century.
Over the course of the eighteenth century in the colonial America, the: Rich became richer
When the Virginia house of burgess decreased that religious conversation did not release a slave from bondage: It meant that under the Virginia law, Christians can own other Christians.
How did John Locke reconcile his belief in natural rights and his support for slavery? He believed that the free individual …. was portraid white.
Which major event first led the British government to seek ways to make the colonies bear part of the cost of the empire? The seven years war
What contribution did the Stamp Act episode make to the colonists concept of liberty? The Stamp Act congress insisted that the right to consent
In the declaration of independence, Jefferson’s biggest influence with regard to natural rights come from? John Locke
What was the important legacy of the Declaration of Independence? Inspired future revolutions against despotite governments.
What does republicanism mean? Why was America a republic and not a democracy?
Which of the following people would have been most likely a supporter of the Articles of Confederation? An indebted farmer in Western Massachusetts
What significant issue did the Missouri Compromise aim to resolve? The extension of slavery
What triggered a panic in 1837?
Utopian communities were unlikely to attract much support because most Americans: Saw property ownership as key to economic independence, but nearly all the utopian communities insisted members give up their property.
Which of the following does NOT describe those who attended the Constitutional Convention? Most had earned their wealth after rising from humble origins
Which of the following is true of the constitution of 1787 and slavery? Although never using the word “slavery” the document protected several aspects of the institution.
When looking at today’s United States economically, whos visions and ideas have become the most realized ? Alexander Hamilton’s ideas on government subsides for business.
Which of the following contributed to the poor American performance in the War of 1812? The nation was deeply divided about whether to go to war.
Why did abolitionism’s focus move from a more gradual approach to calling for the immediate approach of ending slavery? Slavery was growing in the Deep South, so a different approach was needed.
In his speech about the Fourth of July, how did Frederick Douglass critique the founding of the United States. The Declaration of Independence was a good starting point for Principles of freedom
Why could William Lloyd Garrison be seen as a more radical abolitionist than Frederick Douglass? Garrison saw the Constitution as evil.
What was the purpose of the bloomer? It was the functional clothing that made work less restrictive.
Why was the extension of slavery significant politically? Both the North and the South wanted to control the Senate.
Why did slavery become more central to American Politics in the 1840s? Territorial expansion raised the question of whether new lands should be free or slave.
What was ironic about the Fugitive Slave Act? The South promoted states’ rights, but with this law agreed to strong federal action.
Monitor and Merrimac were: Ironclad ships
Lincoln’s vision during the Civil War
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History Chapter 11

Frederick Douglass argued that: slaves were truer to the principles of the Declaration of Independence than were most white Americans
The U.S. slave population by 1860 was approximately 4 million
Which of the following was NOT true of the South and slavery in nineteenth-century America In the South as a whole, slaves made up only 10 percent of the population
In the nineteenth century, what product was the world’s major crop produced by slave labor? cotton
Approximately how much of the world’s cotton supply came from the southern United States? 75 percent
The internal slave trade in the United States involved the movement of hundreds of thousands of enslaved persons from: older states like Virginia to the Lower South
What economic effect did southern slavery have on the North? Southern slavery helped finance industrialization and internal improvements in the North.
The term “Lords of the Loom” refers to: early New England factory owners
Which of the following is a true statement relative to the Upper South and the Deep South? Several Upper South states did not join the Confederacy at the time of the Civil War.
Which of the following was NOT true of the South and its economy in the period from 1800 to 1860? The South produced nearly two-fifths of the nation’s manufactured goods, especially cotton textiles.
In 1860, what percentage of southern white families were in the slaveowning class? 25 percent
Southern farmers in the backcountry generally worked the land using family labor.
The relationship between rich southern planters and poor southern farmers benefited in part from a sense of unity bred by criticism from outsiders.
Andrew Johnson of Tennessee and Joseph Brown of Georgia rose to political power: in the 1850s, as members of the small but influential southern Republican Party.
In 1850, a majority of southern slaveholders owned how many slaves? 1 to 5
To qualify as a member of the planter class, a person had to be engaged in southern agriculture and: own at least twenty slaves
From 1840 to 1860, the price of a “prime field hand rose about 80 percent, which made it harder for southern whites to enter the slaveholding class.
What event is credited with helping to ingrain the paternalist ethos more deeply into the lives of southern slaveholders? the closing of the African slave trade
In the South, the paternalist ethos reflected the hierarchical society in which the planter took responsibility for the lives of those around him.
What did the Reverend Charles C. Jones of Georgia NOT do? urge an end to slavery
By the late 1830s, the South’s proslavery argument: claimed that slavery was essential to human economic and cultural progress.
Who said that the language in the Declaration of Independence—that all men were created equal and entitled to liberty—was “the most false and dangerous of all political errors”? John C. Calhoun
The end of slavery in most Latin American nations involved gradual emancipation accompanied by recognition of owners’ legal rights to slave property
Defenders of American slavery claimed that British emancipation in the 1830s had been a failure because the freed slaves grew less sugar cane, which hurt the economy of the Caribbean
John C. Calhoun and George Fitzhugh agreed that slavery was not a necessary evil but something actually positive and good.
Which of the following statements about slavery and the law is true? Slaves accused of serious crimes were entitled to their day in court, although they faced all-white judges and juries.
Celia was: a slave tried for killing her master while resisting a sexual assault.
Why did southern slaves live in better conditions by the mid-nineteenth century than those in the Caribbean and South America? The rising value of slaves made it profitable for slaveowners to take better care of them.
In an 1840 letter written from Canada, fugitive slave Joseph Taper asked for divine blessings upon: Queen Victoria
Bennet Barrow’s advice to slaveowners on slave discipline (based on rules for slaves at his Highland Plantation in Louisiana) included all of the following EXCEPT: Allow slaves to grow some of their own food to cut down on costs.
Free blacks in the South were allowed to: own property
What was the name of the vibrant community of former slaves freed by Virginian Richard Randolph Israel Hill
Free blacks in the United States: sometimes became wealthy enough to own slaves
of the following statements are true of the work done by southern slaves EXCEPT: slaves worked exclusively as agricultural field hands and house servants.
On the plantation, the white employee in charge of ensuring a profitable crop for the plantation master was called the: overseer.
Task labor allowed slaves to take on daily jobs, set their own pace, and work on their own when they were done.
Urban slaves: most often were domestic servants.
The plantation masters had many means to maintain order among their slaves. According to the text, what was the most powerful weapon the plantation masters had? the threat of sale
Slave families were more common in the West Indies, where living conditions favored their formation and survival
Jumping over a broomstick was a ceremony celebrating a slave marriage
Gender roles under slavery differed from those of white society because men and women alike suffered a sense of powerlessness
Slave religion combined African traditions and Christian beliefs
Which of the following statements about religious life among African-Americans in southern cities is true? Urban free blacks sometimes formed their own churches
Which of the following stories did NOT play a central role in black Christianity Noah and the ark
The Brer Rabbit stories of slave folklore celebrated how the weak could outsmart the more powerful.
Compared to slave revolts in Brazil and in the West Indies, slave revolts in the United States were: smaller in scale and less frequent
“Silent sabotage” can be defined as when slaves did poor work and broke tools
Fugitive slaves generally understood that the North Star led to freedom
Historians estimate that approximately ____________ slaves per year escaped to the North or Canada. 1,000
Harriet Tubman was a fugitive slave who risked her life many times to bring others out of slavery.
Denmark Vesey’s conspiracy reflected a combination of American and African influences.
Joseph Cinqué led a slave rebellion: aboard the Amistad.
Which statement about Nat Turner’s Rebellion is true? Many southern whites were in a panic after the rebellion
After an 1831 slave rebellion, which state’s legislature debated, but did not approve, a plan for gradual emancipation of slaves in that state Virginia
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Art History 101 Final – Multiple Choice – Ch. 8 & 9

Which of the following attributes of Christ did Christians adapt from Roman imperial iconography? a. halob. purple robec. sheepd. bearded face of a mature adult (example?) b. purple robe
Which of the following is a basilica? a. Santa Costanza b. Old St. Peter’s c. Sts. Peter and Marcellinus d. San Vitale b. Old St. Peter’s
Which feature identifies St. Mark’s as a Byzantine building? a. dome on a centralized building b. elaborate narthex c. insertion of a triple apse d. none of the above a. dome on a centralized building
The medium of The Harbaville Triptych is: a. carved ivory b. fresco secco c. marble d. mosaic a. carved ivory
The dome of the Hagia Sophia is supported by ____. a. squinches b. pendentives c. vaults d. beams b. pendentives
The medium used for the icon of the Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George is which of the following? a. Encaustic b. Oil on panel c. Mosaic d. Fresco a. Encaustic
____ remained the Byzantine foothold in Italy for two centuries. a. Naples b. Florence c. Venice d. Ravenna d. Ravenna
The monastic movement began in ____ in the third century. a. Egypt b. Syria c. Rome d. Constantinople a. Egypt
Which of the following reasons likely persuaded Emperor Leo III to initiate iconoclasm? a. The loss of almost two-thirds of Byzantine territory b. To prepare for a visit from the Latin pope c. The creation of images was too expensive d. To commemorate his conversion to Islam c. The creation of images was too expensive
Whose relics were obtained from Egypt for Venice? a. Saint Matthew b. Saint Mark c. Saint Luke d. Saint John b. Saint Mark
Which event in Byzantine history accounts for the loss of art? a. The Ottoman Turks invasion of Constantinople b. The Second Crusade c. The Iconoclasm d. The Seljuk Turks capture of Anatolia c. The Iconoclasm
Which Byzantine emperor was responsible for St. Catherine’s monastery in Sinai?a. Justinian Ib. Basilc. Theodosius d. Constantine a. Justinian I
What is the earliest datable period for Christian art? a. Fifth century CE b. First century CE c. Mid-third century CE d. Sixth century CE c. Mid-third century CE
3n the sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, a pagan who converted to Christianity, the sculptors illustrated scenes from the life of Christ. Which of the following represents the allusion to the crucifixion? a. Entry into Jerusalem b. Christ before Pilate c. Christ between Saints Peter and Paul d. Christ enthroned b. Christ before Pilate
What was the entrance porch of Old Saint Peter’s in Rome called? a. Atrium b. Narthex c. Nave d. Bema b. Narthex
Christians honored ____ as a prefiguration of Christ, making him a popular subject in early Christian art. a. Moses b. Jonah c. King David d. the prophet Jeremiah b. Jonah
The invention that greatly aided in the distribution of manuscripts during the Early Roman Empire was the ____. a. Column of Trajan b. codex c. triumphal arch d. diptych b. codex
What was the significance of the site of Old St. Peter’s? a. it was centrally located in Romeb. it was the site of early Christian martyrdomc. it was the location of Peter’s martyrdom d. it was where the relics of St. Peter were buried c. it was the location of Peter’s martyrdom
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AP US History Chapter 6

George Washington Virginian, patriot, general, and president. Lived at Mount Vernon. Led the Revolutionary Army in the fight for independence. First President of the United States.
Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain was a French explorer who sailed to the West Indies, Mexico, and Panama. He wrote many books telling of his trips to Mexico City and Niagara Falls. His greatest accomplishment was his exploration of the St. Lawrence River and his latter settlement of Quebec.
Robert de La Salle Robert de La Salle was responsible for naming Louisiana. He was the first European to float down the Mississippi river to the tip from Canada and upon seeing the beautiful river valley named Louisiana after his king Louis XIV in 1682.
William Pitt English statesman who brought the Seven Years’ War to an end (1708-1778)
Antoine Cadillac Frenchman who founded Detroit in 1701 to thwart English settlers making a play for the Ohio Valley.
James Wolfe He was the British general whose success in the Battle of Quebec won Canada for the British Empire. Even though the battle was only fifteen minutes, Wolfe was killed in the line of duty. This was a decisive battle in the French and Indian War.
Edward Braddock Edward Braddock was a British commander during the French and Indian War. He attempted to capture Fort Duquesne in 1755. He was defeated by the French and the Indians. At this battle, Braddock was mortally wounded.
Pontiac Indian Chief; led post war flare-up in the Ohio River Valley and Great Lakes Region in 1763; his actions led to the Proclamation of 1763; the Proclamation angered the colonists.
Edict of Nantes 1598 – Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
Quebec First permanent French settlement in North America, founded by Samuel de Champlain
Huguenots The Huguenots were a groups of French Protestants that lived from about 1560 to 1629. Protestantism was introduced into France between 1520 and 1523, and the principles were accepted by many members of the nobility, the intellectual classes, and the middle class. At first the new religious group was royally protected, but toward the end of the reign of King Francis I they were persecuted. Nevertheless, they continued to grow.
Ohio River Valley The point of contention that sparked the French and Indian War. Both the French and British claimed it. They wanted the area because the rivers allowed for transportation.
French and Indian War Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley– English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
Invincibility Proclamation of 1763 New France
Cajun A descendant of French pioneers, chiefly in Louisiana, who in 1755 chose to leave Acadia rather than live under the British Crown.
Iroquois any member of the warlike North American Indian peoples formerly living in New York state
Acadians French settlers who would not pledge their loyalties to the British and were driven from their homes; cajuns of Louisiana are descendants of these people
War of Spanish Succession This was the war between France and Spain in order to unite the two states under one ruler, Phillip V
Albany Congress A conference in the United States Colonial history form June 19 through July 11, 1754 in Albany New York. It advocated a union of the British colonies for their security and defense against French Held by the British Board of Trade to help cement the loyalty of the Iroquois League. After receiving presents, provisions and promises of Redress of grievances. 150 representatives if tribes withdrew without committing themselves to the British cause.
Battle of Quebec turning point of war when Quebec surrendered to the French in 1759
Jesuits Also known as the Society of Jesus; founded by Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556) as a teaching and missionary order to resist the spread of Protestantism.
New France French colony in North America, with a capital in Quebec, founded 1608. New France fell to the British in 1763. (p. 489)
Proclamation of 1763 This was an English law enacted after gaining territory from the French at the end of the French and Indian War. It forbade the colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains. The Colonists were no longer proud to be British citizens after the enactment. This caused the first major revolt against the British.
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Chapter 3 US History

The intention of the Navigation Acts was to Allow england to minopilize american trade
By the end of the seventeenth century, Virginia could best be described as a plantation society, dominated by a slave holding aristocracy
The sources of the which craft hysteria in Salem Are not known exactly
Of the estimated 11 million African slaves carried to America, the great majority were sent to Brazil and the Caribbean
During the Salem witchcraft hysteria, Increase Mather and other leading Congregational ministers urged restraint and caution
By 1700, the population of New England had reached ____ people. 120,000
The eighteenth – century population of the lowlands of South Carolina was _____ percent black 60
During the colonial period, the bulk of the slaves sent to the North American colonies were supplied by the British
By the late 1600s, the gap between rich and poor in white Chesapeake society steadily widened
British authorities based their colonial commercial policies on the theory of Mercantilism
The most important reason for the difference between the New England and the Chesapeake colonies was the much higher mortality rate of the Chesapeake colony
Enumerated Goods could be sold only to the mother country
Which of the following was not a possible cause of the Salem which craft hysteria Salem’s history of engaging in occult practices
The greatest rebellion of native Americans in New England in 1675 was known as King Phillips war
The explanation for the tremendous population growth of seventeenth century New England can be found in the long lives of New England settlers
The hand way covenant of 17th century new England Lessened, somewhat the requirements for baptism as a Congregationalists
The central figure of the glorious revolution in New York was Jacob Leisler
The glorious revolution in Maryland was strongly influenced by Pent-up anti-proprietary and anti-Catholic sentiment
The navigation acts established the principle that certain American products could be sold only in England, only English or colonial merchants could engage in colonial trade All foreign goods that were sold in England had to be shipped in England
The character of the first settlements in the new world Differed substantially from colony to colony from the very beginning of colonization
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AP US History

Midnight Judges The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
Jay Treaty A treaty which offered little concessions from Britain to the U.S Jay was able to get Britain to say they would evacuate the chain of posts on U.S. soil and pay damages for recent seizures of American ships. This resulted in a vitalization of the Democratic-Republicans and Pinckney’s Treaty with the Spanish.
Pinckney Treaty 1795 – Treaty between the U.S. and Spain which gave the U.S. the right to transport goods on the Mississippi river and to store goods in the Spanish port of New Orleans
XYZ Affair An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called “X,Y, and Z” that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Quasi-French War American response to XYZ Affair. Declared war on France by ordering seizure of French vessels and suspension of French trade.
Edmond Genet French diplomat sent to U.S. to recruit Ameridan aid in attacking British shipping.
Judiciary Act of 1789 In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. Allowed president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
Judiciary Act of 1801 One of the last important laws passed by the expiring Federalist Congress. It created 16 new federal judgeships and other judicial offices. This was Adams’s last attempt to keep Federalists power in the new Republican Congress. His goal was for federalists to dominate the judicial branch of government.
Aaron Burr United States politician who served as Vice President under Jefferson, he mortally wounded his political rival Alexander Hamilton in a duel and fled south (1756-1836)
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Elastic Clause The final paragraph of Article I, Section 8, of the constitution, which authorizes congress to pass all laws “necessary and proper” to carry out the enumerated powers.
Whiskey Rebellion In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton’s excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay’s Rebellion.
Alien and Sedition Acts Citizenship extended from 5 to 14 years. Laws passed by congress in 1798 that enabled the government to imprison or deport aliens and to prosecute critics of the government
Bill of Rights The first ten amendments of the U.S. Constitution, containing a list of individual rights and liberties, such as freedom of speech, religion, and the press.
nullification The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state’s opinion, violates the Constitution.
3/5 Compromise Slaves were to be 3/5 of a person in concerns with representation and taxation.
Great Compromise The agreement by which Congress would have two houses, the Senate (where each state gets equal representation-two senators) and the House of Representatives (where representation is based on population).
The Federalist Papers Series of newspaper articles written by John Hay, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton which enumerated arguments in favor of the Constitution and refuted the arguments of the anti-federalists. Wanted to build support for ratification.
Report on Public Credit The federal government would pay off its debs at face value, plus accumulated interest which at the time had a total of $54 million. This included the federal government taking on the debts by the states and paying for it as a country. Hamilton’s establishment of this act gave the country much needed unity because it brought the states together under the centralized government.
Report on Manufactures Rejecting the common assumption that America could prosper with an agricultural base. Hamilton argued that the new Republic should concentrate on developing industry. To nurture American industry in its formative years, he proposed the imposition of protective tariffs and the excise tax to raise revenue.
National Bank Proposed by Hamilton. Brought about strict vs loose constructionist interperations of the Constitution.
Olive Branch Petition On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Prohibitory Act Declared all of the colonies in open rebellion and suspended trade between Britain and the American colonies.
Common Sense A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that criticized monarchies and convinced many American colonists of the need to break away from Britain.
Articles of Confederation The nations first constitution was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or raise an army.
Declaration of Independence Document was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 4, 1776. It established the 13 colonies as independent startes, free frome rule by Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson wrote the majority of this docuent.
Baron von Steuben A stern, Prussian drillmaster that taught American soldiers during the Revolutionary War how to successfully fight the British.
Battle of Trenton December 25th. Washington crosses Deleware River and takes advantage of he Hessains. Becuase they were celebrating Christmas. He takes the Hessains by suprise and its a victory for the Continental Army.
Battle of Saratoga Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.
Battle of Yorktown Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
General William Howe Stationed in New York who’s purpose was to aid Burgoyne’s troops in capturing the Hudson River valley if need be; rashly, he took the main British army to attack Philadelphia and abandoned Burgoyne, which led to the British loss in the important battle at Saratoga.
Valley Forge Place where Washington’s army spent the winter of 1777-1778 after Battle of Trentson, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton.
John Burgoyne Military leader in Revolutionary War, abandoned by William Howe. Seized Fort Ticonderoga easily, then experienced serious downfalls at Oriskany and Saratoga.
Fort Ticonderoga Buroyne initially captured this fort. Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold joined forces to capture the fort from British.
Benedict Arnold Foiled British plan to capture the Hudson. Then known as traitor because he offered to surrender West Point to the British.
General Cornwallis The British general who defied and order and was trapped at Yorktown forcing his surrender.
Treaty of Paris Under this agreement, the British recognized the United States as an independent nation, the borders of the new nation extended from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River, and the southern border stopped at Florida, which was returned to Spain. The west of the Mississippi River also went to Spain.
Ordinance of 1784 Based on proposal by Thomas Jefferson, divided western territory into 10 self-governing districts which could petition Congress for statehood when its population equaled the number of free inhabitants of the smallest existing state.
Ordinance of 1787 Prohibited slavery in Northwest territory – north of Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Created the Northwest Territory (area north of the Ohio River and west of Pennsylvania), established conditions for self-government and statehood, included a Bill of Rights, and permanently prohibited slavery.
Battle of Fallen Timbers Post-revolution war, British instogate Native American attacks, but “Mad” Anthony Wayne defeats them in Ohio Valley and gets the Greenville treaty, which cedes Native American land in Ohio Valley to U.S.
Shay’s Rebellion This conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes.
Newburgh Conspiracy The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in Newburgh, New York to address Congress about their pay. Unfortunately, the American government had little money after the Revolutionary War. They also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan.
Annapolis Convention Originally planning to discuss the promotion of interstate commerce, delegates from five states met at Annapolis in September 1786 and ended up suggesting a convention to amend the Articles of Confederation.
Manumission The freeing of individual enslaved persons.
Cadastral System Survey system that determines the value, extent, and ownership of land for purposes of taxation.
Critical Period Term used by historians to describe the United States under the Articles of Confederation.
Admiral de Grasse The French admiral who drove off the British navy and set Cornwallis up at Yorktown.
Judith Sargent Murray Wrote “On Equality of the Sexes”. She argued men and woman had an equal capacity for memory and women had a superior imagination. She concluded that most women were inferior to men in judgement and reasoning, but only bc they had not been trained.
Count de Rochambeau French general sent to America with a 6,000- soldier army to help the Americans against the British.
Samuel de Champlain A leading figure, intrepid soldier and explorer whose energy and leadership earned him the title “Father of New France”. He sailed up St Lawrence River, and founded the city of Quebec in 1608.
Robert de la Salle Robert de La Salle was responsible for naming Louisiana. He was the first European to float down the Mississippi river to the tip from Canada and upon seeing the river valley named Louisiana after his king Louis XIV in 1682.
Albany Plan of Union Plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown.
Fort Necessity A hastily built British fort where Washington attempted to defeat the French. However, the French took the fort and forced Washington to surrender.
Treaty of Utrecht 1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV’s France and the rest of Europe; vastly expanded British Empire.
Fort Duquesne French fort that was site of first major battle of French and Indian War; General Washington led unsuccessful attack on French troops and was then defeated at Fort Necessity, marking beginning of conflict.
William Pitt The Prime Minister of England during the French and Indian War. He increased the British troops and military supplies in the colonies, and this is why England won the war.
Treaty of Paris 1763, France lost all of American territory. Spanish lost Florida and Louisiana. Britain gained Canada and control of slave trade.
Seven Years War French and Indian War, fought between Great Britain and France, often considered to be the first world war because it involved most of the globe. Began over dispute for Ohio Valley.
George Grenville He became the Prime Minister of England in 1763. He was eager to reduce government spending, and he proposed the Sugar and Stamp acts to raise revenue in the colonies to defray the expenses of the French and Indian War and maintain Britain’s expanded empire in America.
Currency Act Restricted colonists from printing their own currency and use “hard” currency (gold and silver).
Pontiac’s Rebellion 1763 conflict between Native Americans and the British over settlement of Indian lands in the Great Lakes area. Last major Indian rebellion.
James Wolfe English general, led troops up steep cliff to capture Quebec which marked the beginning on the end of the French/Indian War.
Proclamation of 1763 A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
Stamp Act Congress A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act. It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Constitutional Convention The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
Declaratory Act Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.
Sons of Liberty A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Boston Massacre British soldiers fired into a crowd of colonists who were teasing and taunting them. Five colonists were killed. First bloodshed of revolution.
Massachusetts Circular Letter A letter written in Boston and circulated through the colonies in February, 1768, which urged the colonies not to import goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Boston, New York, and Philadelphia agreed to non-importation. It was followed by the Virginia Circular Letter in May, 1768. Parliament ordered all colonial legislatures which did not rescind the circular letters dissolved.
John Dickinson Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of “Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania” in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
Writs of Assistance It was part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship’s cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that the Writs violated their rights as British citizens.
Gaspee Incident Ocurred to protest enforcement of Navigation Acts, residents of Rhode Island boarded Gaspee (British customs ship) and sank it.
Daughters of Liberty This orginization supported the boycott of British goods. They urged Americans to wear homemade fabrics and produce other goods that were previously available only from Britain. They believed that way, the American colonies would become economically independent.
Boston Tea Party A raid on three British ships in Boston Harbor (December 16, 1773) in which Boston colonists, disguised as Indians, threw the contents of several hundred chests of tea into the harbor as a protest against British taxes on tea and against the monopoly granted the East India Company.
Intolerable Acts In response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop’s in barns and empty houses.
Quebec Act Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory.
First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
Committees of Correspondence Committees of Correspondence, organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to Parliament. The committees sent delegates to the First Continental Congress.
Conciliatory Propositions Parliament planned to instruct the colonies to tax themselves. This was an unsuccessful attempt by Lord North to lessen the colonists’ anger. Separate majority of moderates from minorty of extremists.
General Thomas Gage He was the commander in chief of Britain’s military forces in America from 1763 to 1775. In April 1775, he issued the order for British troops to march on to concord and seize American weapons stored up there.
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History Flashcards

Ch. 23 US History

a postwar society driven by conflict In the political arena, reactionaries and rebels battled for control of:a.people who had been lied to about the warb.a postwar society driven by conflictc.the southern voted.the northern citiese.President Woodrow Wilson’s legacy
35 In 1920, what percentage of homes in America had electricity?a.60b.25c.35d.75e.50
slapstick comedy Charlie Chaplin is best associated with:a.politicsb.stand-up comedyc.muckraking journalismd.slapstick comedye.alternative comedy
Pittsburg, Pennsylvania The first radio station to begin broadcasting regularly scheduled programs was located in:a.Detroit, Michiganb.Pittsburg, Pennsylvaniac.New York, New Yorkd.Boston, Massachusettse.Cleveland, Ohio
World War I What event pushed the development of the airplane?a.the development of the carb.the defense industryc.advertising on the radiod.World War Ie.political pressure
Charles Lindbergh Who was once known as the “Lone Eagle”?a.W. E. B. Du Boisb.Woodrow Wilsonc.Henry Fordd.Marcus Garveye.Charles Lindbergh
8 million In 1920, how many cars were registered in the United States?a.4 millionb.10 millionc.6 milliond.11 millione.8 million
was the first woman to fly solo across the Atlantic Amelia Earhart:a.was the first aviator to fly around the worldb.was the first woman to fly solo across the Atlanticc.was the first pilot to fly solo across the Atlanticd.was the first woman elected to Congresse.was an advocate of Prohibition
Yankee Stadium The “House That Ruth Built” is known as:a.Wrigley Fieldb.Tiger Stadiumc.Yankee Stadiumd.Ebbets Fielde.Red Sox Field
automobile industry Which one of the following is associated with Detroit, Michigan?a.airplane industryb.entertainment industryc.socialismd.automobile industrye.farming
Negro Leagues What were the professional baseball leagues for African Americans called?a.Negro Leaguesb.Minor Leaguesc.Black Leaguesd.Inner City Leaguese.African American Leagues
boxing William Harrison “Jack” Dempsey is best associated with:a.footballb.boxingc.baseballd.radioe.horse racing
football Harold Edward “Red” Grange is best associated with:a.being a great leaderb.baseballc.footballd.being a Communiste.boxing
Eigtheenth Which amendment to the Constitution is known as the Prohibition amendment?a.Seventeenthb.Twentiethc.Eighteenthd.Twenty-firste.Nineteenth
1920 The amendment to the Constitution that barred the manufacture or sale of intoxicating liquors went into effect in:a.1911b.1928c.1920d.1932e.1922
Warren G. Harding The desire to restore traditional values and social stability in 1920 led voters to elect as president:a.Woodrow Wilsonb.Warren G. Hardingc.Calvin Coolidged.William Jennings Bryane.Theodore Roosevelt
F. Scott Fitzgerald Who celebrated the jazz era’s spontaneity and sensual vitality?a.Sherwood Andersonb.Upton Sinclairc.Countee Cullend.F. Scott Fitzgeralde.James Weldon Johnson
F. Scott Fitzgerald The Roaring Twenties was dubbed the “Jazz Age” by:a.Upton Sinclairb.Louis Armstrongc.Ernest Hemingwayd.F. Scott Fitzgeralde.Langston Hughes
modernist student life at Princeton The novel This Side of Paradise concerned:a.immigrant life in New York Cityb.the lax enforcement of Prohibitionc.modernist student life at Princetond.fundamentalist attacks on modernisme.the beginnings of Miami’s tourist industry
opportunities for young men and women to experiment sexually with each other Petting parties were:a.opportunities for young men and women to experiment sexually with each otherb.opportunities for young men and women to learn about proper treatment of dogs and catsc.opportunities to raise money for the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animalsd.visits to the zoo so young people could get away from their parentse.parents’ chance to teach their children proper morals
Victorian values All of the following could be associated with flappers EXCEPT:a.bobbed hairb.swearingc.Victorian valuesd.pettinge.smoking and drinking
a degenerating society Conservative moralists saw the flappers as just another sign of:a.progressb.a degenerating societyc.equalityd.the work of the devile.women’s rights
were never allowed to marry After encountering strong resistance, Mabel Puffer and Arthur Hazzard:a.were married in New Hampshireb.were married in New Yorkc.were married in Canadad.were never allowed to marrye.were really not engaged to be married
was called the Great Migration The movement of southern blacks to the North:a.was called the Great Migrationb.created the rise of the KKKc.saw many African Americans return to Africad.was so large that southern agriculture was interruptede.meant industry could no longer hire whites
Aframerican James Weldon Johnson coined the term:a.bootleggerb.Negroc.progressivismd.Aframericane.flapper
Langston Hughes Who wrote “fed up With Jim Crow laws, / People who are cruel And afraid, / Who lynch and run, / Who are scared of me And me of them”?a.Claude McKayb.Langston Hughesc.Jean Toomerd.W. E. B. Du Boise.DuBose Heyward
Albert Einstein In physics, the theory of relativity was developed and explained by:a.Albert Einsteinb.Werner Heisenbergc.Isaac Newtond.Sir Francis Bacone.Max Planck
blended several musical traditions Jazz:a.was a European innovation emerging from modern classical musicb.blended several musical traditionsc.was invented by Benny Goodmand.helped calm the fears of rural fundamentalistse.inspired rebellious youth to violence
was led by Marcus Garvey The Universal Negro Improvement Association:a.sponsored black artists and writersb.was led by Marcus Garveyc.promoted Booker T. Washington’s idea of racial peace through accommodationd.was the forerunner of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)e.was conceived by W. E. B. Du Bois
said blacks should return to Africa Marcus Garvey:a.sought reconciliation with southern whitesb.said blacks should return to Africac.was a revered jazz saxophonistd.helped lead the suffragist movemente.was allied with W. E. B. Du Bois
He is “the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race….He is either a lunatic or a traitor” Which of the following did W.E.B. Du Bois say in his opposition to Marcus Garvey?a.”We have to rid ourselves of this viper.”b.”He will help only his friends and not the great mass of black people.”c.”He thinks that black people are only good enough to be plumbers.”d.”He believes himself to be the very second coming of Christ.”e.He is “the most dangerous enemy of the Negro race. . . . He is either a lunatic or a traitor.”
legal action against discrimination The NAACP emphasized:a.legal action against discriminationb.the formation of a black political partyc.vocational and technical educationd.Garvey’s concept of social and political separation of blackse.strictly black membership
described the frenetic, hard-drinking lifestyle and the cult of robust masculinity that Hemingway himself epitomized The novels of Ernest Hemingway:a.portrayed utopian communities in a socialist societyb.attacked the corruption of machine politics in the large citiesc.traced the philosophical connections between twentieth-century America and eighteenth-century Britaind.described the frenetic, hard-drinking lifestyle and the cult of robust masculinity that Hemingway himself epitomizede.documented “the greatest, gaudiest spree in history”
government-funded programs The 1920s “New Era” was created by advances in all of the following EXCEPT:a.communicationsb.business organizationc.transportationd.the spread of mass consumerisme.government-funded programs
1927 Charles A. Lindbergh Jr., a St. Louis-based mail pilot, made the first solo transatlantic flight, traveling from New York to Paris in:a.1927b.1920c.1928d.1929e.1926
large crowds of spectators Baseball, like football, tended to attract:a.large crowds of spectatorsb.lower-class spectatorsc.women spectatorsd.immigrant spectatorse.black spectators
Albert Einstein Who developed the theoretical basis for quantum physics?a.Albert Einsteinb.Werner Heisenbergc.Isaac Newtond.Sir Francis Bacone.Max Planck
Isaac Newton In physics, the theory that the fundamental concepts of space, time, matter, and energy are not distinct, independent things with stable dimensions was developed by:a.Albert Einsteinb.Max Planckc.Isaac Newtond.Sir Francis Bacone.Werner Heisenberg
the subconscious fascinated some people and scared other Modernists in art and literature came to believe that:a.nature’s reality can be captured in artb.human reason ruled all of naturec.science and art had no connectiond.art, in the end, had rules that should be obeyede.the subconscious fascinated some people and scared others
experimentalist poet Gertrude Stein was a(n):a.disc jockeyb.freedom fighter in World War Ic.Dada artistd.member of Congresse.experimentalist poet
the rise of modernism in the arts The horrors of World War I accelerated:a.the need to rearmb.rebellion in the United Statesc.the formation of the United Nationsd.the rise of modernism in the artse.the birth of computers
was a controversial exhibition of modern art The Armory Show in 1913:a.was a controversial exhibition of modern artb.introduced many women to new clothing fashionsc.featured poetry readings by Ezra Pound and T. S. Eliotd.showed the continuing appeal of traditional valuese.led directly to woman suffrage
Edward Bellamy All of the following were prophets of modern art and literature EXCEPT:a.Ezra Poundb.T. S. Eliotc.Edward Bellamyd.Ernest Hemingwaye.Gertrude Stein
E.S. Eliot The Waste Land, a poem that became the favorite of many modernist readers because of its sense of disillusionment and its suggestion of a burned-out civilization, was written by:a.Franz Boasb.Gertrude Steinc.T. S. Eliotd.E. E. Cummingse.Ezra Pound
“real” life punctuated by the doomed, war-tainted love affairs of young Americans Ernest Hemingway wrote of:a.rational people dedicated to traditional valuesb.”real” life punctuated by the doomed, war-tainted love affairs of young Americansc.patriotic fervor among the American expatriate writers in Parisd.masculinity and a desperate search for lifee.hope and happiness in America’s heartland
painfully autobiographical Fitzgerald’s stories during the 1920s were:a.written for Hollywoodb.nonfictionc.painfully autobiographicald.about sciencee.not discovered until the 1960s
his first novel Hemingway used the phrase “lost generation” as the epigraph in:a.A Farewell to Arms (1929)b.Three Lives (1909)c.This Side of Paradise (1920)d.his first novele.The Waste Land (1922)
Gertrude Stein Who, in 1921, told Hemingway that he and his friends who had served in the war “are a lost generation?”a.Gertrude Steinb.Franz Boasc.Ezra Poundd.Ernest Hemingwaye.T. S. Eliot
Margaret Sanger Who was the New York nurse and midwife in the working-class tenements of Manhattan who observed many young mothers struggling to provide for their growing families?a.Gertrude Steinb.Amelia Earhartc.T. S. Eliotd.Ernest Hemingwaye.Margaret Sanger
Guinn v. United States(1915) Which court case or legal action brought the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments back to life?a.Abrams v. United States (1918)b.Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)c.Schenck v. United States (1917)d.Guinn v. United States (1915)e.Buchanan v. Worley (1917)
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21 Art History: African Art

What does the other world spouse represent? d. all of the above(the highest marks of beauty, having children, being married)
What do initiation rituals represent in the bwami system of the Lega people? c. moving up in status or levels
What does the mask above symbolize? a. the connection between the ancestors in the living and dead community
What is biiga doll used for? b. a fertility figure
What is depicted above? d. blolo bla
What is the name of the figure above? b. nlo byeri
What is nkanda? c. initiation rights
What does the middle figure in the image above represent? a. a European colonial administrator
What major change took place with the arrival of contemporary African art? c. adoption of modern materials
Inspiration sources, such as a surface design system called ______, are still rooted in tradition. b. uli
What is a kikaku? b. a three-sided roofed enclosure
What are ancestors regarded as? b. guardians for those left on earth
What do the exaggerated features of a biiga doll represent? c. fertility and health
Who is the artist of the painting above? b. Julie Mehretu
What type of mask is shown above? d. bwami
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History Flashcards

Medieval Test Art History

In the mid-10th century, the eastern part of the Carolingian empire was consolidated under the rule of the ____. Ottonians
Which group of barbarian invaders at one time controlled part of Italy and formed a kingdom in southern France, and were forced into Spain by the Franks? visigoths
The art of medieval monasteries in Ireland is described as ____. Hiberno-Saxon
The ____ was the most typical object of prestige adornments in the medieval period. fibula
In the later Middle Ages, religious books were created for the private devotions of the laity. They were based on readers used by the monks. These books contained prayers to be read at specific times during the day and were popularly known as ____. Book of the Hours
It has been said that the author-portrait of Saint Matthew from the Lindisfarne Gospels shows classical influences. What supports this statement? The figure is seated as a philosopher or poet reading or writing
What manuscript is commonly considered the greatest of the extant early medieval Irish books? book of kells
Equestrian statues were reminders of Rome’s glory. Charlemagne returned to Rome after his coronation with an equestrian statue of Theodoric. Which statue served as the ultimate model for such equestrian portraits? marcus aureilus in rome
Irish or Celtic stone crosses are identifiable by which of the following? a circle intersecting the cross arms (their size and scale)
Because of their large scale, ____ are the exceptions of artistic production in Ireland and northern England. high crosses
The epic ____ records that heroes were buried with items of prestige, such as rings and brooches, as a testament to their greatness. Beowulf
What was the primary vehicle used in the Christianization of the British Isles? liturgical books
___ were centrally important to the revival of learning during Charlemagne’s reign. books, especially illuminated manuscripts
The Great Mosque at Córdoba has a hypostyle prayer hall with horseshoe-shaped arches adapted from which of the following? Visigoths
In the tenth century, Caliph al-Hakam II undertook major renovations of the Great Mosque at Córdoba in imitation of his ____ predecessors in Jerusalem and Damascus. Umayyad
The term Roman-like was adopted to describe the architecture of the Romanesque period because it relied on elements of Roman architecture such as ____. barrel and groin vaults based on the round arch
___ was the economic system that was gradually replaced by the growth of towns and cities during the Romanesque period. feudalism
The primary motivation for undertaking a pilgrimage, which was extremely dangerous and could often last a year, was ____. repentance; seek curation of an illness
____ is the theft of relics for holy purposes. furta sacra
Pilgrims believed that relics could ____. heal the body and soul
Saint-Sernin at Toulouse has been called a “pilgrimage type” church. Which of the following accounts for this designation? It had radiating chapels attached to the transept and ambulatory; it was en route to the shrine in Western Europe
The purpose of tribunes such as those found at Saint James at Santiago de Compostela and Saint-Sernin in Toulouse was ____. housed the overflow crowds on special occasions; buttress the weight of vaults
In the Romanesque period, church interiors became impressive acoustical settings for church services. Which of the following architectural elements allowed for the excellent acoustics? the continuous barrel vaulted naves
The monks of the ____ order were among the primary patrons of Romanesque sculpture. Cluniac
The ____ is the covered courtyard in a monastery that expressed the seclusion of the spiritual life and offered a foretaste of paradise. cloister
The Cistercian monk who criticized the rich outfitting of non-Cistercian churches and sculptural adornments of monastic cloisters was ____. Bernard of Clairvaux
The ____ is the semi-circular area above the lintel of a Romanesque portal, and often depicted the vision of Christ’s second coming. Tympanum
___ is the church most closely associated with the crusades. La Madeleine, Vèzelay
The ____ were mass armed pilgrimages whose purpose was to take control of Christian monuments in the Holy Land. crusades
The mission of the ____, the earliest crusading knights, was to protect Christians visiting Christian shrines in the Holy Land. Knights of Templar
The use of ornamented initials such as the Initial R in the Moralia in Job can be traced back to the ____ period. Hiberno-Saxon period
____ church is one in which the aisles are approximately the same height as the nave. “Hall” (Hallerkirche)
____, in northern Spain, boasts more Romanesque murals than anywhere else in Europe. Catalonia
The intersection of two barrel vaults creates which of the following? groin vault
The Bayeux Tapestry is unique in Romanesque art. Which of the following supports this claim? It depicted an actual event in full detail shortly after it occurred; provides a pictoral narrative of the Norman conquest of Ghgland
The Bayeux Tapestry is the conqueror’s version of history. It is a narrative that includes the battle sequences as well as the preparations for war. It is said that this is the most Roman of all Romanesque artworks. Which of the following supports this contention? column of Trajan
Who of the following coined the term Gothic? Giorgio Vasari
In the Gothic period, the focus of intellectual and religious life shifted from monasteries to ____. cathedrals
Visible on Laon Cathedral, ____ became a standard feature of French Gothic facades. rose windows
The sculptural program of the west facade of Chartres Cathedral proclaims the power and majesty of Jesus Christ. Which of the following elements unites all three doorways of the west portal of Chartres Cathedral? the episodes from the life of Christ are carved on capitals
The tympanum from the right portal of Chartres depicts the Virgin and Child, which hearkens back to the Romanesque portrayals of this theme as the Throne of Wisdom. Which of the following is the source for this depiction? Bzynatine Theotokos
The portal sculptural program for Chartres Cathedral is distinctly different from its Romanesque counterparts. Which of the following accounts for this distinction? prominence of mary on the portal program
Paris claimed to be the intellectual center of Gothic Europe. Its university faculty and the reputations of its masons supported this claim. Which of the following also provided support for this claim? it was the center for fine book production
What pose developed by the “court style” was typical of Late Gothic sculpture? S shaped curve
The Gothic style is said to have first appeared in which of the following areas? burgundy
Many Gothic cathedrals were dedicated to which of the following? the Virgin Mary
What is a distinctive feature of a hall church? the side aisles are as tall as the nave
Which of these churches embodies the essential characteristics of English Gothic architecture? Salisbury Cathedral
The royal portal of Chartres was carved in which style? early gothic
The development of the Rayonnant style is connected with which of the following? the court of Louis IX
Introduced in French Gothic architecture at Notre Dame in Paris, ____ is an external support that counters the outward thrust of the nave vaults. flying butressss
The frontality, stiff poses, and lack of modeling as seen in Berlinghieri’s Saint Francis Altarpiece reveals the ____ roots of his style. fundamentally medieval
____ was the leading Roman painter at the end of the 13th century. Pietro Cavallini
Elements of Giotto’s new style that appear in the Madonna Enthroned include ____. naturalism & classical modeling figures
One of Giotto’s innovations that moved away from the Italo-Byzantine style was the introduction of ____. naturalism