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History Flashcards

Medieval Test Art History

In the mid-10th century, the eastern part of the Carolingian empire was consolidated under the rule of the ____. Ottonians
Which group of barbarian invaders at one time controlled part of Italy and formed a kingdom in southern France, and were forced into Spain by the Franks? visigoths
The art of medieval monasteries in Ireland is described as ____. Hiberno-Saxon
The ____ was the most typical object of prestige adornments in the medieval period. fibula
In the later Middle Ages, religious books were created for the private devotions of the laity. They were based on readers used by the monks. These books contained prayers to be read at specific times during the day and were popularly known as ____. Book of the Hours
It has been said that the author-portrait of Saint Matthew from the Lindisfarne Gospels shows classical influences. What supports this statement? The figure is seated as a philosopher or poet reading or writing
What manuscript is commonly considered the greatest of the extant early medieval Irish books? book of kells
Equestrian statues were reminders of Rome’s glory. Charlemagne returned to Rome after his coronation with an equestrian statue of Theodoric. Which statue served as the ultimate model for such equestrian portraits? marcus aureilus in rome
Irish or Celtic stone crosses are identifiable by which of the following? a circle intersecting the cross arms (their size and scale)
Because of their large scale, ____ are the exceptions of artistic production in Ireland and northern England. high crosses
The epic ____ records that heroes were buried with items of prestige, such as rings and brooches, as a testament to their greatness. Beowulf
What was the primary vehicle used in the Christianization of the British Isles? liturgical books
___ were centrally important to the revival of learning during Charlemagne’s reign. books, especially illuminated manuscripts
The Great Mosque at Córdoba has a hypostyle prayer hall with horseshoe-shaped arches adapted from which of the following? Visigoths
In the tenth century, Caliph al-Hakam II undertook major renovations of the Great Mosque at Córdoba in imitation of his ____ predecessors in Jerusalem and Damascus. Umayyad
The term Roman-like was adopted to describe the architecture of the Romanesque period because it relied on elements of Roman architecture such as ____. barrel and groin vaults based on the round arch
___ was the economic system that was gradually replaced by the growth of towns and cities during the Romanesque period. feudalism
The primary motivation for undertaking a pilgrimage, which was extremely dangerous and could often last a year, was ____. repentance; seek curation of an illness
____ is the theft of relics for holy purposes. furta sacra
Pilgrims believed that relics could ____. heal the body and soul
Saint-Sernin at Toulouse has been called a “pilgrimage type” church. Which of the following accounts for this designation? It had radiating chapels attached to the transept and ambulatory; it was en route to the shrine in Western Europe
The purpose of tribunes such as those found at Saint James at Santiago de Compostela and Saint-Sernin in Toulouse was ____. housed the overflow crowds on special occasions; buttress the weight of vaults
In the Romanesque period, church interiors became impressive acoustical settings for church services. Which of the following architectural elements allowed for the excellent acoustics? the continuous barrel vaulted naves
The monks of the ____ order were among the primary patrons of Romanesque sculpture. Cluniac
The ____ is the covered courtyard in a monastery that expressed the seclusion of the spiritual life and offered a foretaste of paradise. cloister
The Cistercian monk who criticized the rich outfitting of non-Cistercian churches and sculptural adornments of monastic cloisters was ____. Bernard of Clairvaux
The ____ is the semi-circular area above the lintel of a Romanesque portal, and often depicted the vision of Christ’s second coming. Tympanum
___ is the church most closely associated with the crusades. La Madeleine, Vèzelay
The ____ were mass armed pilgrimages whose purpose was to take control of Christian monuments in the Holy Land. crusades
The mission of the ____, the earliest crusading knights, was to protect Christians visiting Christian shrines in the Holy Land. Knights of Templar
The use of ornamented initials such as the Initial R in the Moralia in Job can be traced back to the ____ period. Hiberno-Saxon period
____ church is one in which the aisles are approximately the same height as the nave. “Hall” (Hallerkirche)
____, in northern Spain, boasts more Romanesque murals than anywhere else in Europe. Catalonia
The intersection of two barrel vaults creates which of the following? groin vault
The Bayeux Tapestry is unique in Romanesque art. Which of the following supports this claim? It depicted an actual event in full detail shortly after it occurred; provides a pictoral narrative of the Norman conquest of Ghgland
The Bayeux Tapestry is the conqueror’s version of history. It is a narrative that includes the battle sequences as well as the preparations for war. It is said that this is the most Roman of all Romanesque artworks. Which of the following supports this contention? column of Trajan
Who of the following coined the term Gothic? Giorgio Vasari
In the Gothic period, the focus of intellectual and religious life shifted from monasteries to ____. cathedrals
Visible on Laon Cathedral, ____ became a standard feature of French Gothic facades. rose windows
The sculptural program of the west facade of Chartres Cathedral proclaims the power and majesty of Jesus Christ. Which of the following elements unites all three doorways of the west portal of Chartres Cathedral? the episodes from the life of Christ are carved on capitals
The tympanum from the right portal of Chartres depicts the Virgin and Child, which hearkens back to the Romanesque portrayals of this theme as the Throne of Wisdom. Which of the following is the source for this depiction? Bzynatine Theotokos
The portal sculptural program for Chartres Cathedral is distinctly different from its Romanesque counterparts. Which of the following accounts for this distinction? prominence of mary on the portal program
Paris claimed to be the intellectual center of Gothic Europe. Its university faculty and the reputations of its masons supported this claim. Which of the following also provided support for this claim? it was the center for fine book production
What pose developed by the “court style” was typical of Late Gothic sculpture? S shaped curve
The Gothic style is said to have first appeared in which of the following areas? burgundy
Many Gothic cathedrals were dedicated to which of the following? the Virgin Mary
What is a distinctive feature of a hall church? the side aisles are as tall as the nave
Which of these churches embodies the essential characteristics of English Gothic architecture? Salisbury Cathedral
The royal portal of Chartres was carved in which style? early gothic
The development of the Rayonnant style is connected with which of the following? the court of Louis IX
Introduced in French Gothic architecture at Notre Dame in Paris, ____ is an external support that counters the outward thrust of the nave vaults. flying butressss
The frontality, stiff poses, and lack of modeling as seen in Berlinghieri’s Saint Francis Altarpiece reveals the ____ roots of his style. fundamentally medieval
____ was the leading Roman painter at the end of the 13th century. Pietro Cavallini
Elements of Giotto’s new style that appear in the Madonna Enthroned include ____. naturalism & classical modeling figures
One of Giotto’s innovations that moved away from the Italo-Byzantine style was the introduction of ____. naturalism

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