History Flashcards

History 1302

The South emerged from the Civil War with a strong, diversified economy. False
The Fifteenth Amendment freed the slaves. False
Waving “the bloody shirt” meant referring to the Civil War and the southern rebellion in order to discredit political opponents. True
In the North, the Civil War especially elevated the power of: business leaders
Emancipation had what impact on the South? It left the South’s labor system in disarray
At the end of the Civil War, the newly freed slaves were given: medical and legal assistance from the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
On what basis did President Lincoln claim the right to direct Reconstruction? Lincoln claimed constitutional provisions pertaining to presidential power gave him the authority.
Why did Congressional Republicans write the “Wade-Davis Manifesto”? to protest Lincoln’s veto of the Wade-Davis Bill and accuse Lincoln of exceeding his constitutional authority
Johnson’s Proclamation of Amnesty excluded the people he blamed for leading the South into secession. They were: the wealthy planters, merchants, and bankers
Southern efforts to recreate a society that looked similar to the Confederacy had what political impact? Moderate Republicans moved to support Radical Republicans’ Reconstruction policies.
The Radical Republicans understood that essential to maintaining Republican control of the federal government was: the right of ex-slaves to vote
The main issue that caused the dispute between Congress and President Johnson was: a growing conflict of opinion over Reconstruction policy
Andrew Johnson was: impeached by the House but not convicted by the Senate
All of the following statements about the Fifteenth Amendment are true EXCEPT: it ended slavery
Why did service in the Union army or navy benefit many freedmen? It provided training in leadership and alerted them to new opportunities in economic advancement and civic leadership.
During Reconstruction, all of the following are true about African American involvement in the political arena during Reconstruction EXCEPT: several African Americans were elected as governors
Northern voters supported Grant mainly because of his military record
Why was the 1876 Supreme Court decision in United States v. Cruikshank (which pertained to the Colfax Massacre) significant? It decided that states’ rights trumped federal authority when it came to protecting freed blacks from white terrorists.
All of the following are reasons why Republicans lost control in the South EXCEPT: black voters switched to support the Democrats
What happened after the end of Reconstruction? The protections of black civil rights crumbled under the pressure of restored white rule and unfavorable Supreme Court decisions.
What was the most significant enduring legacy of Reconstruction? The passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.
Hamilton Fish Grant’s secretary of state
Horace Greeley opposed Grant in 1872 presidential election
Andrew Johnson treason must be made infamous and traitors must be improvrished
Pinckney B. S. Pinchback elected lieutenant governor of Louisina
Hiram Revels black Mississippi native elected to senate
Edwin M. Stanton secretary of war under Johnson until 1867
Alexander H. Stephens former vice president of the confederacy elected to US Senate representing Georgia in 1865
Henry Ward Beecher prominent northern minister who preached sectional reconciliation
Charles Sumner senator from Massachusetts, leading Radical Republican
Samuel J. Tilden was the Democratic presidential candidate in 1876
Power sources (such as water, coal, wood, electricity, and oil) were more expensive in the United States than in other nations around the world. False
The number of inventions registered at the U.S. Patent Office remained fairly constant through the nineteenth century. False
Most Americans experienced a rising standard of living in the late nineteenth century. True
By the 1880s, most states had outlawed child labor. False
Interconnected transportation and communications networks were essential to the origins of the Second Industrial Revolution in the United States because: they facilitated the emergence of a national and even international markets for American goods and services
Crédit Mobilier is indicative of the type of shady big business financial practices that occurred during the Gilded Age because it: bribed officials and grossly overcharged for its services
The work of Cornelius Vanderbilt helps emphasize that: business consolidation put the control of railroads in few hands
What was one main reason electric motors were significant to the industrialization of the late nineteenth century? They freed factories to locate wherever they wished and not just by waterfalls and coal deposits.
During the Gilded Age, the rich were getting richer and: many other people were at least better off
For industrial workers in Gilded Age America: working and living conditions remained precarious
All of the following statements are reasons why child labor was problematic EXCEPT: child laborers took well-paying jobs from legal immigrants
Why was there a growth of craft unions during the Civil War? The war sparked an increased demand for skilled labor.
How did the AFL differ from the Knights of Labor? The AFL was a federation of national organizations, each of which retained a large degree of its autonomy, while the Knights organization was more centralized.
Marxism, one strain of socialism, was imported to the United States mainly by: Germans
Andrew Carnegie wrote The Gospel of Wealth
Eugene V. Debs presidential candidate of the Socialist party of America
Henry Clay Frick president of the Homestead Steelworks
Jay Gould prince of railroad robber barrons
Joe Hill labor organizer executed for murder
Dennis Kearney organized Workingman’s party of California
J. Pierpont Morgan consolidated steel industry into the United States Steel Corporation
Terrence V. Powderly led the Knights of Labor
John D. Rockefeller founded Standard OIl
Alvah Roebuck founded a mail-order business
Under the Bourbons, there was a well-planned and effective effort to disenfranchise African American voters. False
In the 1880s, southern politics remained surprisingly open and democratic. True
The frontier Indian wars began with the closing of the frontier in 1890. False
The Homestead Act of 1862 encouraged the development of thriving western farms. False
The New South gospel emphasized all the following EXCEPT: women’s rights
In the late 1800s, the South experienced major increases in the production in all of the following areas EXCEPT: automobiles
King Cotton survived the Civil War and expanded over new acreage: because traditional overplanting of the crop continued
Why did tenant farmers have no incentive to take care of the farmland that they were on? They did not own the land on which they farmed.
Bourbons: was a term used to refer to the New South political leadership meant to depict that leadership as reactionary
Perhaps the ultimate paradox of the Bourbons’ rule was that their paragons of white supremacy tolerated: a lingering black voice in politics
The very poor generally did not migrate to the West because: they generally could not afford the expense of transportation, land, and supplies
All of the following groups were prominent in the West during the late nineteenth century EXCEPT: slaves
Buffalo soldiers were: black soldiers who served in the West
Six states were created from the western territories in the years 1889-1890. These states were not admitted before 1889 because: Democrats in Congress were reluctant to create states out of territories that were heavily Republican
Following the 1867 “Report on the Condition of the Indian Tribes,” Congress decided that the best way to end the Indian wars was: to persuade the Indians to live on out-of-the-way reservations
The conventional explanation that the buffalo disappeared from the plains due to overhunting by whites in the West is incomplete because: it does not account for environmental factors, such as changes in climate and competition for forage with other animals
Why was Helen Hunt Jackson’s book A Century of Dishonor so influential? It affected American attitudes toward Indians in a way similar to how Uncle Tom’s Cabin mobilized the abolitionist movement a generation earlier.
Which of the following statements about the cowboys’ frontier is NOT true? Blacks were generally not permitted to be cowboys.
“Cowtown” refers to: towns that grew up in the West as a result of the expanding cattle industry
Why was the expansion of railroads significant to the growth of the cattle industry? As the railroads increased the ability to ship huge numbers of western cattle, more “cowtowns” were established in the West.
Range wars erupted by the late nineteenth century because of: conflicts over land and water rights between ranchers and farmers
The fight for survival in the trans-Mississippi West made men and women: more equal partners than were their eastern counterparts
J. M. Chivington led massacre of 200 Indians at Sand Creek
Benjamin Pap Singleton foremost promoter of black immigration to the West
James Buchanan Duke founded American tobacco company
Joseph Glidden promoter of barbed-wire
Henry Grady editor of the Atlanta Constitution
Helen Hunt Jackson author of A Century of Dishoner
James Oliver made improved plows for Plains farmers
Rutherford B. Hayes the Indian wars were broken promises by Americans
Joseph McCoy livestock dealer that helped establish Abilene, Kansas as the first successful cowtown
Frederick Jackson Turner wrote the Frontier had shaped American National charater

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