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music history

liturgy The prescribed body of texts to be spoken or sung and ritual actions to be performed in a religious service.
Mass (from Latin missa, ‘dismissed’) (1) The most important service in the Roman church. (2) A musical work setting the texts of the ORDINARY of the Mass, typically KYRIE, GLORIA, CREDO, SANCTUS, and AGNUS DEI. In this book, as in common usage, the church service is capitalized (the Mass), but a musical setting of the Mass Ordinary is not (a mass).
Ordinary (the texts sung at each service) Kyrie eleisonGloria in excelsisCreedSanctus and BenedictusAgnus Dei
Proper those which change according to the season or saint being celebrated) IntroitGradual or AlleluiaAlleluia or TractOffertoryCommunion
responsorial Pertaining to a manner of performing CHANT in which a soloist alternates with a group.
antiphonal Adjective describing a manner of performance in which two or more groups alternate.
syllabic Having (or tending to have) one NOTE sung to each syllable of text.
tenor (from Latin tenere, ‘to hold’) (1) In a MODE or CHANT, the RECITING TONE. (2) In POLYPHONY of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the voice part that has the chant or other borrowed MELODY, often in long-held NOTES. (3) Male voice of a relatively high range.
mediant In a PSALM TONE, the CADENCE that marks the middle of the PSALM verse.
termination In a PSALM TONE, the CADENCE that marks the end of the PSALM VERSE.
Lesser Doxology A formula of praise to the Trinity. Two FORMS are used in GREGORIAN CHANT: the Greater Doxology, or GLORIA, and the Lesser Doxology, used with PSALMS, INTROITS, and other chants.
antiphon (1) A LITURGICAL CHANT that precedes and follows a PSALM or CANTICLE in the OFFICE. (2) In the MASS, a chant originally associated with ANTIPHONAL PSALMODY; specifically, the COMMUNION and the first and final portion of the INTROIT.
Introit (from Latin
Kyrie (Greek, “Lord”) One of the five major musical items in the MASS ORDINARY, based on a BYZANTINE litany.
Gloria (Latin, ‘Glory’) Second of the five major musical items in the MASS ORDINARY, a praise formula also known as the Greater DOXOLOGY.
Alleluia Item from the MASS PROPER, sung just before the Gospel reading, comprising a RESPOND to the text ‘Alleluia,’ a verse, and a repetition of the respond. CHANT alleluias are normally MELISMATIC in style and sung in a RESPONSORIAL manner, one or more soloists alternating with the CHOIR.
Gradual (from Latin
Sanctus (Latin, ‘Holy’) One of the five major musical items in the MASS ORDINARY, based in part on Isaiah 6:3.
Agnus Dei ANTIPHON without verses.Agnus Dei(Latin, ‘Lamb of God’) Fifth of the five major musical items in the MASS ORDINARY, based on a litany.
jubilus (Latin) In CHANT, an effusive MELISMA, particularly the melisma on “-ia” in an ALLELUIA.
trope Addition to an existing CHANT, consisting of (1) words and MELODY; (2) a MELISMA; or (3) words only, set to an existing melisma or other melody.
sequence (from Latin sequentia, ‘something that follows’) (1) A category of Latin CHANT that follows the ALLELUIA in some MASSES. (2) Restatement of a pattern, either MELODIC or HARMONIC, on successive or different pitch levels.
aria a self-contained composition for solo voice, usually with instrumental accompaniment and usually found within the context of an opera, oratorio or cantata
ars nova style of polyphony from 14th century France, distinguished from earlier styles by a new system of rhythmic notation that allowed duple or triple division of note values, syncopation, and great rhythmic flexibility.
ballade French poetic form and chanson type of the Middle Ages and Renaissance with courtly love texts. Also a Romantic genre, especially a lyric piano piece
basso continuo a characteristic of Baroque music consisting of a bass part that runs continuously throughout a work, also called thoroughbass
binary form a musical form consisting of two units (A and B) constructed to balance and complement each other
cadenza an improvised or written-out ornamental passage performed by a soloist usually near the final cadence
cantata story set to music to be sung by a chorus (shorter than an oratorio)
castrato male singer castrated before puberty to retain a high voice range; the most important category of vocal soloists in opera during the baroque period.
chanson French polyphonic song especially of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, set to either courtly or popular poetry
chorale a congregational song or hymn of the German Protestant Church, originally for the entire congregation to sing
clausula in notre dame polyphony, a self-contained section of an organum that closes with a cadence; section of organum set in discant style
concertato in early Baroque music, refers to a genre of music in which groups of instruments or vocalists share a melody, typically in alternation and usually over a basso continuo
concerto long musical composition for one or more principal instruments with orchestral accompaniment
courtly love a poetic style of the Middle Ages when poets or troubadours would write songs of unrequited love and present them at the court of their aristocratic/royal masters
da capo aria a ternary or A-B-A form that brings back the first section with embellishments improvised by the solist.
discant a style of music in which the voices move at roughly the same rate and are written in clearly defned modal rhythms (as compared to organum purum) (Latin, “singing apart”) (1) Twelfth-century style of POLYPHONY in which the upper voice or voices have about one to three NOTES for each note of the lower voice. (2) TREBLE part.
episode (1) In a FUGUE, a passage of free COUNTERPOINT between statements of the SUBJECT. (2) In RONDO FORM, a section between two statements of the main THEME. (3) A subsidiary passage between presentations of the main thematic material.
exposition initial presentation of the thematic material of a musical composition, movement, or section. The use of the term generally implies that the material will be developed or varied. sonata form exp, dev, recap
Fauxbourdon Continental style of POLYPHONY in the early RENAISSANCE, in which two voices are written, moving mostly in parallel sixths and ending each PHRASE on an octave, while a third unwritten voice is sung in parallel perfect fourths below the upper voice.
figured bass Baroque practice consisting of an independent bass line that often includes numerals indicating the harmony to be supplied by the performer.
formes fixes schemes of poetic and musical repetition, each featuring a refrain, used in late medieval and 15th century french chansons; in particular, the ballade, rondeau, and virelai
french overture Baroque instrumental introduction to an opera, ballet, or suite, in two sections: a slow opening followed by an Allegro, often with a brief reprise of the opening.
fugue is a compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and recurs frequently in the course of the composition. exposition, episode, development
ground bass an ostinato in the bass
head motive Initial passage or motive of a piece or movement; used especially for a motive or phrase that appears at the beginning of each movement of a motto mass or cantus-firmus mass.
hocket A Medieval practice of composition in which two voices would move in such a manner that one would be still while the other moved and vice-versa. Sometimes this was achieved by taking a single melody and breaking it into short, one or two note phrases, and dividing the phrases between the two voices so that a quick back-and-forth movement of the melody would be heard
isorhythm in 14th century music, the technique of repeating the identical rhythm for each section of a composition, while the pitches are altered
jubilus (Latin) In CHANT, an effusive MELISMA, particularly the melisma on “-ia” in an ALLELUIA.
liturgy music performed during worship or a religious rite.
madrigal Renaissance secular work originating in Italy for voices, with or without instruments, set to a short, lyric love poem; also popular in England.
madrigalism A particularly evocative-or, if used in a disparaging sense, a thoroughly conventional-instance of TEXT DEPICTION or WORD-PAINTING; so called because of the prominent role of word-painting in MADRIGALS.
mass -two parts: proper and ordinary. >proper consisted of segments that changed from day to day depending on the calendar (example: proper is different on christmas, easter, advent, just depends on which saint was being honored). >ordinary was the part that was the same every time no matter what day mass was said. mass format: proper, introit, ordinary, kyrie, gloria, proper, ordinary.
melisma In vocal music, a passage of many notes sung to a single syllable
monody vocal style established in the baroque, with a solo singer and instrumental accompaniment
monophony a musical texture consisting of a single unaccompanied line of melody
motet an unaccompanied choral composition with sacred lyrics, Polyphonic choral work set to a sacred Latin text other than that of the mass; one of two main forms of sacred Renaissance music.
notre-dame organum PolyphonicText: LatinContrasting sections of monophonic, discant, copula, organum- Discant: both parts move at about the same rate- Copula: one part, usually the lower, moves slower- Organum: one part, usually the lower, sustains pitch, while other sings in rhythmVoices: 2 (Leonin), 3-4 (Perotin)Composers: Léonin (1150), Pérotin (1200)
opera seria a genre of opera that dominated the stage during the Baroque era, making use of serious historical or mythological subjects, da capo arias, and a lengthy overture
oratorio musical composition, usually on a religious theme, for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra
organum Medieval polyphony that consists of Gregorian chant and one or more additional melodic lines
organum purum style of organum within 12th- and 13th-century compositions including Leonin, Perotin, and other’s Alleluia, “Pascha Nostrum” (from the Mass for Easter Day ) which includes long drones in the vox principalis (the tenor, or lower part, in this case, and the music derived from chant) and unmeasured, melismatic melody in the vox organalis (the upper part, newly composed).
overture orchestral music played at the beginning of an opera or oratorio
paired imitation – hallmark of the style of Josquin des Prez- division of four-voiced texture into two answering pairs or duos.- Typically, the upper voices are treated as one pair and the lower voices as the other, resulting in two duos that echo each other at the octave, in a kind-of antiphony.
Parisian chanson popular during the reign of King Francis I (r. 1515-1547) the genre of choice, peaked 1528(first part of the 16th century)generally performed in parisperformance practice:1. one singer to a part2. lute accompaniment3. each voice is independently texted (as opposed to just pasted to the bottom)4. printed in choir book format (each singer only sees his/her part)5. musically simple, possible to perform if one is an amateur (thus the reason for Attaignant’s successful sale of his music)
prelude music that precedes a fugue or introduces an act in an opera
Recitative A vocal solo in opera, cantats, and oratorios that declaims the text in a sung-speech manner, in free rhythm with minimal accompainment.
secco recitative recitative singing style that features a sparse accompaniment and moves with great freedom
accompanied recitative RECITATIVE that uses ORCHESTRAL accompaniment to dramatize the text.
reciting tone Especially in chant, the single note used for musical “recitation,” with brief melodic changes at the beginning and end of the phrase.
rhythmic mode Fixed rhythmic patterns of long and short notes (13th century), Divided music into beat groups: Perfect – 3 (for sacred – representing the trinity) and Imperfect – 2 (for secular)
ritornello In Italian, refrain; a repeated section of music usually played by the full orchestra, or tutti, in baroque compositions.
ritornello form compositional form usually used in the baroque concerto grosso, in which the tutti plays a ritornello, or refrain, alternating with one or more soloists playing new material
sacred concerto In the seventeenth century, a COMPOSITION on a sacred text for one or more singers and instrumental accompaniment.
seconda prattica term used in Italy in the early seventeenth century to describe the Baroque style that gave emphasis to text over music and distinguished it from the Renaissance polyphonic style (prima prattica)
sonata a musical composition of 3 or 4 movements of contrasting forms
strophic song structure in which the same music is repeated with every stanza (strophe) of the poem
stanza a fixed number of lines of verse forming a unit of a poem
suite a musical composition of several movements only loosely connected
talea In an ISORHYTHMIC COMPOSITION, an extended rhythmic pattern repeated one or more times, usually in the TENOR.
isorhythmic same rhythmic pattern is used repeatedly, no matter which melodic phrase is occuring
terraced dynamics the Baroque practice of suing sudden changed in dynamics, as opposed to a gradual increase or decrease in volume
toccata an instrumental piece, for keyboard or other instruments, requiring the performer to touch the instrument with great technical dexterity; designed to show off the creative spirit of the composer as well as the technical skill of the performer
troubadour a medieval poet and musician who traveled from place to place, entertaining people with songs of courtly love
word painting Musical representation of specific poetic images.
paraphrsae musical setting of the Ordinary of the Mass, using as its basis an elaborated version of a cantus firmus, typically chosen from plainsong or some other sacred source. It was a common means of mass composition from the late 15th century until the end of the 16th century, during the Renaissance period in music history, and was most frequently used by composers in the parts of western Europe which remained under the direct control of the Roman Catholic Church. It is distinguished from the other types of mass composition, including cantus-firmus, parody, canon, soggetto cavato, free composition, and mixtures of these techniques.
parody reworking of one kind of composition into anothe
refrain a repeated line or number of lines in a poem or song, typically at the end of each verse.
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History Flashcards

Civil Rights and Voting Rights QUIZ : US History/Government 2

Read the passage.The first civil rights legislation since Reconstruction was signed by President Eisenhower in 1957. “No person, whether acting under color of law or otherwise, shall intimidate, threaten, coerce, or attempt to intimidate, threaten, or coerce any other person for the purpose of interfering with the right of such other person to vote or to vote as he may choose, or of causing such other person to vote for, or not to vote for, any candidate [for national office] . . . .” -Civil Rights Act of 1957Based on the passage, what inference can be made about why President Eisenhower supported the Civil Rights Act of 1957? He wanted to protect the rights of minority voters.
How did the Voting Rights Act of 1965 stop discrimination in areas where voter eligibility tests were previously used? It required federal supervision.
Who gave an historically important speech during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom? Martin Luther King Jr.
Civil rights activists challenged Southern voting laws because they conflicted with the Fifteenth Amendment.
The “I Have a Dream” speech referred to which historic American document? the Declaration of Independence
The Civil Rights Act that passed in 1964 was stronger than the first draft of the act.
Refer to the table.According to the votes shown in the table, which of the following groups opposed the Civil Rights Act of 1964? Southern states
The governor of Alabama during the Selma voting rights marches was George Wallace.
An important effect of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom was that it raised awareness of civil rights through TV coverage.
Compare the tableHow did congressional voting for civil rights laws change from 1957 to 1965? More House Democrats shifted from oppposing to favoring the law.
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History Flashcards

31 Art History: Modern Art in Context

When looking at modern art, what should the viewer understand? c. Modern art reflects changes following World War I.
What is the name of the piece above? b. Guernica
How did art change in Russia after World War I? Not D
After living through World War I and witnessing the effects of war on society and its people, artists _____________________. b. had a new sense of reality
What scientific innovation occurred that affected the art that was produced during this period? a. Albert Einstein’s Theory of Relativity
Which of the following played an important role in the shaping of modern art? d. all of the above (new science, psychology, World War I)
Who is the artist of the piece above? c. Marcel Duchamp
Who popularized psychology and the idea of the human subconscious? b. Sigmund Freud
Who is the artist of the image above? c. M.C. Escher
Which of the following post war events most influenced artists? c. both A and B(psychology, new science)
How were the new time and space theories demonstrated in art? c. a tremendous amount of movement
What was Marcel Duchamp’s intention for the piece seen above? c. to change the meaning of a common household item
What controversy surrounded some of the modern art that was produced? b. Critics did not consider it art because of its non-traditional subject matter.
What is depicted in the image above? a. a Spanish town in disarray after a violent bombing
What is depicted in the artwork by Duchamp pictured above? b. an iron with nails attached to it