History Flashcards

History 1302

The South emerged from the Civil War with a strong, diversified economy. False
The Fifteenth Amendment freed the slaves. False
Waving “the bloody shirt” meant referring to the Civil War and the southern rebellion in order to discredit political opponents. True
In the North, the Civil War especially elevated the power of: business leaders
Emancipation had what impact on the South? It left the South’s labor system in disarray
At the end of the Civil War, the newly freed slaves were given: medical and legal assistance from the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands
On what basis did President Lincoln claim the right to direct Reconstruction? Lincoln claimed constitutional provisions pertaining to presidential power gave him the authority.
Why did Congressional Republicans write the “Wade-Davis Manifesto”? to protest Lincoln’s veto of the Wade-Davis Bill and accuse Lincoln of exceeding his constitutional authority
Johnson’s Proclamation of Amnesty excluded the people he blamed for leading the South into secession. They were: the wealthy planters, merchants, and bankers
Southern efforts to recreate a society that looked similar to the Confederacy had what political impact? Moderate Republicans moved to support Radical Republicans’ Reconstruction policies.
The Radical Republicans understood that essential to maintaining Republican control of the federal government was: the right of ex-slaves to vote
The main issue that caused the dispute between Congress and President Johnson was: a growing conflict of opinion over Reconstruction policy
Andrew Johnson was: impeached by the House but not convicted by the Senate
All of the following statements about the Fifteenth Amendment are true EXCEPT: it ended slavery
Why did service in the Union army or navy benefit many freedmen? It provided training in leadership and alerted them to new opportunities in economic advancement and civic leadership.
During Reconstruction, all of the following are true about African American involvement in the political arena during Reconstruction EXCEPT: several African Americans were elected as governors
Northern voters supported Grant mainly because of his military record
Why was the 1876 Supreme Court decision in United States v. Cruikshank (which pertained to the Colfax Massacre) significant? It decided that states’ rights trumped federal authority when it came to protecting freed blacks from white terrorists.
All of the following are reasons why Republicans lost control in the South EXCEPT: black voters switched to support the Democrats
What happened after the end of Reconstruction? The protections of black civil rights crumbled under the pressure of restored white rule and unfavorable Supreme Court decisions.
What was the most significant enduring legacy of Reconstruction? The passage of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.
Hamilton Fish Grant’s secretary of state
Horace Greeley opposed Grant in 1872 presidential election
Andrew Johnson treason must be made infamous and traitors must be improvrished
Pinckney B. S. Pinchback elected lieutenant governor of Louisina
Hiram Revels black Mississippi native elected to senate
Edwin M. Stanton secretary of war under Johnson until 1867
Alexander H. Stephens former vice president of the confederacy elected to US Senate representing Georgia in 1865
Henry Ward Beecher prominent northern minister who preached sectional reconciliation
Charles Sumner senator from Massachusetts, leading Radical Republican
Samuel J. Tilden was the Democratic presidential candidate in 1876
Power sources (such as water, coal, wood, electricity, and oil) were more expensive in the United States than in other nations around the world. False
The number of inventions registered at the U.S. Patent Office remained fairly constant through the nineteenth century. False
Most Americans experienced a rising standard of living in the late nineteenth century. True
By the 1880s, most states had outlawed child labor. False
Interconnected transportation and communications networks were essential to the origins of the Second Industrial Revolution in the United States because: they facilitated the emergence of a national and even international markets for American goods and services
Crédit Mobilier is indicative of the type of shady big business financial practices that occurred during the Gilded Age because it: bribed officials and grossly overcharged for its services
The work of Cornelius Vanderbilt helps emphasize that: business consolidation put the control of railroads in few hands
What was one main reason electric motors were significant to the industrialization of the late nineteenth century? They freed factories to locate wherever they wished and not just by waterfalls and coal deposits.
During the Gilded Age, the rich were getting richer and: many other people were at least better off
For industrial workers in Gilded Age America: working and living conditions remained precarious
All of the following statements are reasons why child labor was problematic EXCEPT: child laborers took well-paying jobs from legal immigrants
Why was there a growth of craft unions during the Civil War? The war sparked an increased demand for skilled labor.
How did the AFL differ from the Knights of Labor? The AFL was a federation of national organizations, each of which retained a large degree of its autonomy, while the Knights organization was more centralized.
Marxism, one strain of socialism, was imported to the United States mainly by: Germans
Andrew Carnegie wrote The Gospel of Wealth
Eugene V. Debs presidential candidate of the Socialist party of America
Henry Clay Frick president of the Homestead Steelworks
Jay Gould prince of railroad robber barrons
Joe Hill labor organizer executed for murder
Dennis Kearney organized Workingman’s party of California
J. Pierpont Morgan consolidated steel industry into the United States Steel Corporation
Terrence V. Powderly led the Knights of Labor
John D. Rockefeller founded Standard OIl
Alvah Roebuck founded a mail-order business
Under the Bourbons, there was a well-planned and effective effort to disenfranchise African American voters. False
In the 1880s, southern politics remained surprisingly open and democratic. True
The frontier Indian wars began with the closing of the frontier in 1890. False
The Homestead Act of 1862 encouraged the development of thriving western farms. False
The New South gospel emphasized all the following EXCEPT: women’s rights
In the late 1800s, the South experienced major increases in the production in all of the following areas EXCEPT: automobiles
King Cotton survived the Civil War and expanded over new acreage: because traditional overplanting of the crop continued
Why did tenant farmers have no incentive to take care of the farmland that they were on? They did not own the land on which they farmed.
Bourbons: was a term used to refer to the New South political leadership meant to depict that leadership as reactionary
Perhaps the ultimate paradox of the Bourbons’ rule was that their paragons of white supremacy tolerated: a lingering black voice in politics
The very poor generally did not migrate to the West because: they generally could not afford the expense of transportation, land, and supplies
All of the following groups were prominent in the West during the late nineteenth century EXCEPT: slaves
Buffalo soldiers were: black soldiers who served in the West
Six states were created from the western territories in the years 1889-1890. These states were not admitted before 1889 because: Democrats in Congress were reluctant to create states out of territories that were heavily Republican
Following the 1867 “Report on the Condition of the Indian Tribes,” Congress decided that the best way to end the Indian wars was: to persuade the Indians to live on out-of-the-way reservations
The conventional explanation that the buffalo disappeared from the plains due to overhunting by whites in the West is incomplete because: it does not account for environmental factors, such as changes in climate and competition for forage with other animals
Why was Helen Hunt Jackson’s book A Century of Dishonor so influential? It affected American attitudes toward Indians in a way similar to how Uncle Tom’s Cabin mobilized the abolitionist movement a generation earlier.
Which of the following statements about the cowboys’ frontier is NOT true? Blacks were generally not permitted to be cowboys.
“Cowtown” refers to: towns that grew up in the West as a result of the expanding cattle industry
Why was the expansion of railroads significant to the growth of the cattle industry? As the railroads increased the ability to ship huge numbers of western cattle, more “cowtowns” were established in the West.
Range wars erupted by the late nineteenth century because of: conflicts over land and water rights between ranchers and farmers
The fight for survival in the trans-Mississippi West made men and women: more equal partners than were their eastern counterparts
J. M. Chivington led massacre of 200 Indians at Sand Creek
Benjamin Pap Singleton foremost promoter of black immigration to the West
James Buchanan Duke founded American tobacco company
Joseph Glidden promoter of barbed-wire
Henry Grady editor of the Atlanta Constitution
Helen Hunt Jackson author of A Century of Dishoner
James Oliver made improved plows for Plains farmers
Rutherford B. Hayes the Indian wars were broken promises by Americans
Joseph McCoy livestock dealer that helped establish Abilene, Kansas as the first successful cowtown
Frederick Jackson Turner wrote the Frontier had shaped American National charater
History Flashcards

World History FLVS 3.01

Oral tradition the spoken relation and preservation, from one generation to the next, of a people’s cultural history and ancestry.
Griot a West African word for a person who plays music and tells the legends, myths, and stories of a people.
Sahara desert Whats the largest desert in the world?
Sahel an arid area at the southern edge of the Sahara desert, which stretches from Mauritania to Chad.
Ghana rose from the Soninke people in the grasslands north of the Niger River.
Mali The kingdom of the Malinke rose as the Ghana Empire declined, ultimately becoming the —– Empire.
Songhai the largest of the three west african empires.
Nok what culture is known for beautiful figurines made out of clay?
Yoruba a member of a people of southwestern Nigeria and Benin
iron smelting What technology came from the Hittites in Anatolia and ultimately reached the Nok people?
Trade what is the real reason for the development and rise of the great West African kingdoms of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai?
Aimists :the belief in the existence of individual spirits that inhabit natural objects and phenomena.
Matrilineal :tracing decent through the mother’s ancestors.
Trade of gold and salt What did the Ghana empire rely heavily on?
Ghana Who taxed traders?
Malinke :also known as Mandinke, is a large ethnic group in West Africa that became known as the Mali Empire.
Sundiata Keita Who was the founder of the Mali Empire?
Sundiata Keita Who reestablished the gold and salt trade that had declined after the fall of Ghana?
Sunni Ali the Great Who was the founder of the Songhai empire?
Sunni Ali the Great Who led the Songhai in conquering the cities of Mema and Timbuktu?
1 Kings and Nobility2 Freemen3 Slaves and War Captives What was the Songhai Class structure?
c What gave the Kingdom of Ghana a military advantage over its neighbors? (5 points) Trade of salt and spices Climate and water access Iron and horses Gold and silver
b In what way was the empire of Ghana different from the later empire of Mali? (5 points) Ghana was ruled by Malinke leaders, and Mali was ruled by Soninke leaders. Ghana was mostly animists, and Mali had a Muslim-following leadership. Ghana was patrilineal, and Mali followed a matrilineal system Ghana was influenced by Arab architecture, and Mali was not.
b Why was Timbuktu an important location in Mali’s empire? (5 points) It was the capital of Ghana. It was a center for learning. It controlled the gold and salt trade. It was the earliest city founded in West Africa.
a How did Sundiata contribute to the Mali Empire? (5 points) He recaptured gold-producing areas of West Africa. He established Mali’s power in the region with his pilgrimage to Mecca. He created new architectural methods that are still used today. He made peace agreements with the Soso kingdom.
b Who was Sunni Ali? (5 points) He was a great Soninke warrior. He was a great leader of Songhai. He was a great leader of Mali. He went on a pilgrimage to Mecca.
a What important natural resource in West Africa did the Songhai Empire control? (5 points) Salt mines in the Sahara Desert Nile River Atlas Mountains The only access to the Atlantic Ocean
a Which of the following contributed to the start of civil wars and Mali’s decline? (5 points) Struggles over the line of succession Fights over different interpretations of the Quran Family fights over control of the ivory trade Struggles over control of the slave trade
d Which event marks the final stage in the collapse of the Songhai Empire? (5 points) Revolts from deposed kings Civil wars among the priests Weakening from the slave trade An invasion from Morocco
d What geographical feature contributed to why North Africa developed so differently from southern Africa? (5 points) Niger River Inland Delta Sahel Region Sahara Desert
c What role did the geography of the Sahel play in the rise of the medieval African kingdoms? (5 points) It provided access to the large ports on the Atlantic. The lack of fresh water made rulers here more warlike. It provided a place for trade between the North and the South. The desert was difficult for outsiders to invade.
History Flashcards

Art History: Early Medieval Art I Quiz

Which of the following is an example of the Oseberg ship? Black one with a swirl on the end
Which of the following is a traditional type of Scandinavian architecture? horizontal log construction
What was the Oseberg ship used for? a graveship for women of high rank
What part of a ship is the prow? the most forward part of a ship’s bow
Which of the following is an example of Ottonian architecture? clerestory, gallery, & arcade
The Vikings were seamen from which of the following countries? Norway, Denmark, & Sweden
Which of the following is an example of timber architecture? wattle and daub
The Stave Church in Borgund, Norway is an example of _________________. timber architecture
Of what materials were Viking helmets made? tight-fitting leather or metal
What decorative features were used on the prow of the Oseberg ship? a serpent head, and carved intertwined animals
History Flashcards

US History Midterm

French & Indian War War between Britain and France that started in the Americas and moved to Europe. Fought from 1754 to 1763. Indians helped French. The British won the war and gained the control of eastern North America. Ended with a Treaty of Paris in 1763. Drove French out of North America.
Mercantilism A Policy in which a Nation could accumulate wealth and become a richer and more powerful nation. They would do this by exporting more goods than they imported thus, not giving money to rival nations. Colonization was an attempt towards mercantilism because of the products that were made in the Americas.
John Locke An Enlightenment thinker from UK. Believed people deserved natural rights of Life, liberty, and property. If a government doesn’t give these rights, the people are able to leave the government Important because it gave ideas to many colonists when they were trying to break from UK.
Proclamation Line A line developed in 1763 to give Indians the land west of Appalachian Mountains. This act was because the British thought it to be cheaper to not fight with Indians than to fight. This meant that settlers couldn’t settle west but many still did.
Enlightenment A movement in the early 1700’s. The Belief that society’s problems could be solved through reason and science.
Common Sense -Written by Thomas Paine -Discussed independence from Britain, union of new states, and republican state Gov’ts-Said the king was the greatest enemy of liberty-If America was free they could trade with entire world
Sons of Liberty -A group of men who were opposed to British taxes. -Famous leader- Sam Adams. -They led violent protest and killed, tarred, and feathered many tax collectors.-They burned houses and caused all tax collectors to resign.
Stamp Act (1765)- A tax that made American colonist pay a tax on all printed materials, including newspapers, books, court docs, contracts, and land deeds. Brought about protests of people saying that they had no representation in Parliament so they shouldn’t have to pay taxes to the British.
Townshend Duties a tax that raised price on glass, lead, paper, paint, tea
Battle of Saratoga Turning point in the war because British were going to New York from Canada. The French then realized that they could fight their old rival
Declaration of Independence -written on July 2, 1776-Written by Thomas Jefferson-Used many of Paine’s Ideas-Used many enlightenment ideas
Boston Tea Party 1773 patriots revolted by throwing tea into the harbor in response to a harsh tax on Dutch Tea. The tax was an attempt by the British to sell their tea to the colonists.
Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) An act by Parliament that closed the ports in Boston until they paid for the tea they had destroyed. Along with this, Bostonians had to house British troops in their houses. Sparked more revolts by colonists.
Battles at Lexington and Concord The British went to Lexington to arrest Hancock and Adams but they met resistance in Lexington and killed eight. They did not arrest the two men but on their way back to Boston they were ambushed by hundreds of militia men.200 British were killed.
First continental Congress held in Philadelphia in 1774. Every colony but Georgia met, and the idea of being an American was first created. Created a boycott on British goods across the colonies in an attempt to remove the intolerable acts.
Second Continental Congress Philadelphia in 1775. Congress assumed responsibility for the war with Britain. The continental Army was set up and was led by George Washington.
Battle of Yorktown 1781 Washington trapped Cornwallis’ troops at Yorktown, VA. The French Navy arrived at the perfect time and stopped the British from leaving. British surrender. Treaty of Paris in 1783 was signed giving the US independence and generous boundaries
Articles of Confederation Drafted in 1777 by the Continental Congress. Design for the Gov’t was a loosely constructed 13 states not a strong central Gov’t. In this Gov’t each state had one vote. No president. Congress had no power to tax. To amend articles you needed all 13 states to vote yes.
Constitutional Convention 1787. A convention in the Pennsylvania State House where the Articles on Confederation were supposed to be revised. Instead they were thrown out and a new constitution was drafted
Virginia Plan James MadisonCongress has power to tax and regulate commercePower divided amongst the Legislative, Judicial, and Executive branchesStates with more population would have more powerCalled for a strong president
New Jersey Plan William PatersonCongress has powers to regulate commerce and taxStates all have the same powerPreserved an executive committee rather than adopting a singular PresidentStates remained more powerful than the Federal Gov’t
The Great Compromise Roger ShermanSenate would have equal representation with to representatives from each stateHouse of Representatives would represent populationSupported federalism (divided power among federal and state Gov’ts)To Satisfy the South:-Slavery would no longer be imported after 1808-Three Fifths Compromise-each slave was three-fifths of a person-Slaves were to be returned to their owners
Federalists Favored ratification (change the Articles of Confederation)Famous-George Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Ben FranklinStressed the weakness of the AoCStronger Nation would get rid of IndiansHad support in ports and other centralized locationsHad support of Newspapers
Anti-Federalists Opposed ratificationDisliked the lack of a Bill of RightsSaid the new constitution would put in place a strong central gov’tFamous- Sam Adams, John Hancock, George Clinton, Richard Lee, Patrick Henry
Bill of Rights First ten amendments of the constitution. Written by James Madison. They avoided anything that said all men are created equal which helped to deny slave rights. Freedom of Religion, speech, press, assembly,petition; protection from unreasonable searches and seizures(captures), right to speedy and free trial. Was left open to further amendments.
Shays Rebellion Led by Daniel Shays, 1787. He led 1000 farmers to seize the Springfield Armory and shut down the courts. It was a reaction to the Articles of Confederation not being able to trade with other nations. Farmers could not sell their produce internationally.
Washington’s Farewell Address He recognized that the country needed him to set a precedent of only running the country for 2 terms so he didn’t run again in 1796. He had defeated Indians, opened the west for settlement, suppressed the Whiskey rebellion, kept them out of European Wars, and helped fund the debts. In his farewell address he told his successors to avoid alliances that may lead to wars. He also told them to leave their own desires away and do what’s best for the nation.
Interpretations of Constitution Federalists interpreted the Constitution Broadly and Democratic Republicans interpreted it Strictly.
John Marshall Supreme Court Justice who formed judicial review (The court could determine if acts of Congress and the President were constitutional). He also interpreted the Constitution broadly.
Marbury v. Madison court case that established judicial review. Marbury (Federalist) was appointed for Justice of Washington DC. James Madison refused to deliver the papers and John Marshall ruled in favor of Madison. They were from different parties so it pleased Madison (Democratic Republican) but it also gave the courts judicial review, which DRs didn’t want.
McCulloch vs. Maryland State officials in Maryland were raising heavy taxes on the National Banks of that area so their local banks would grow. Marshall said that Congress had the power to make a National Bank and no state could destroy a bank with taxes.
Embargo of 1807 A failed attempt by Thomas Jefferson to suspend trade with the British, thus ruining their economy. The embargo did the opposite of what it intended to do and it crippled the US economy. Gained support for the Federalists in the North.
Lewis and Clark Meriwether Lewis and Will Clark were sent to explore the territory purchased in Louisiana Purchase. Exploration happened in 1804. The men were guided by Sacajawea and her husband.
Alien Act The president could arrest and deport immigrants who criticized the federal Gov’t
Sedition Act allowed juries to acquit defendants who proved the literal truth of their statements. In this system defendants were guilty until proven innocent
Revolution of 1800 Thomas Jefferson took office and he set out to change things that had been done before. Encouraged Congress to Drop the Alien and Sedition Acts and the taxes on unlike goods, wanted to pay all of the debt down, increased foreign trade, sold new federal lands to pay it down.
War of 1812 War with Britain over the repeated economic attacks made by Britain (Impressments, banned direct voyages to Europe). War ended with Treaty of Ghent
Louisiana Purchase 1803. Gave land from Mississippi River to Rocky Mountains to the US. Thomas Jefferson bought the land from the French for $15 million. This contradicted Jefferson’s principles because he was in favor a strict constitution but he as president went out and bought land.
Treaty of Ghent A treaty in which both sides of the War of 1812 restored prewar boundaries and moved on. This was because both sides were exhausted of war. Was good news for US because the news was broken shortly after the news of the Battle of new Orleans. This made it look like Jackson had caused the Treaty. Treaty signed in Belgium.
Battle of New Orleans The American’s greatest victory where Andrew Jackson helped to massacre the British
Election of 1824 (Corrupt Bargain) Jackson, Clay, Adams, and Crawford all ran. The House of Reps chose Adams because Henry Clay had supported him. After Adams became President, he appointed Henry Clay as his Secretary of State. This was seen as a corrupt bargain by Andrew Jackson
Tariff of Abominations An especially high tariff on incoming goods. This would create a better market for selling American goods to the south and it saved American Industry in the North. The South was unhappy because they did not want to have to pay more because the imported goods before were cheaper than the goods that were coming from the North.
Bank war with “Monster Bank” Jackson dislikes the Second Bank of the US. He vetoes the renewal of the bank in 1832. He said it was dangerous to liberty, unauthorized and against the rights of the states. The Whigs were formed in response and Henry Clay and Daniel Webster promoted protective tariffs, internal improvements and a National Bank
Spoils System A system that president Jackson used to get people to be loyal. If one remained loyal to Jackson’s party, he would then reward them with political positions around him.
Nullification Crisis Happened in 1833 in response to the Tariff of Abominations. John Calhoun of South Carolina who was Jackson’s VP at the time wanted to nullify. South Carolina decided to nullify the tariff and refused to pay federal taxes or they were going to secede
Jacksonian Democracy A party of Democrats who followed Jackson. They helped him to win the Presidential election of 1828 by a large margin. They wanted strong states and weak gov’ts that would not interfere with slavery
Trail of Tears The Jackson administration had talked to a small group of Cherokees that didn’t have any power over the other Indians and they agree to leave to Oklahoma. In 1838, 16,000 Native Americans left their homes and walked to Oklahoma. ¼ of the people died along the way.
Monroe Doctrine A foreign policy doctrine to tell the great European powers that they were not going to stop the Latin American Colonies from liberating themselves.
Eli Whitney Invented Interchangeable parts that changed the production of things forever. It made items, which were generally hard to replace, easy to switch out a broken piece. He also invented the more famous cotton Gin in 1793, making the separation of cottonseeds from the cotton much faster. This led to the need from more factories in the North and Cotton became over half of the value of all US exports.
Immigration In the 1840’s People from Ireland and Germany came to America. They left their home country because of a Potato Famine (Ireland) and a failed Political Revolution (Germany). The Immigrants went into Ellis Island in New York when they first arrived. Most were Catholic and Jewish, they were met with great resistance by Protestants (Nativists)
First Industrial Revolution A time in America where the country had a boom in industrial production. Textile Mills (created by Sam Slater), Full Mills (For example the Lowell mill), Factory girls working(Lowell and other factories), Interchangeable parts(Invented by Eli Whitney), and Communication Systems(created by Samuel B. Morse).
Missouri Compromise (1820) Drafted by Henry Clay Maine was entered as a free state and Missouri would be entered as a slave state. Any new state south of the Southwestern corner of Missouri would be entered as a slave state.
Second Great Awakening A religious movement in the early 1800’s that was started by the protestants to try and revive the religious faith of the country. This ultimately led to other movements because it showed people that they can openly speak about what they believe in.
Women’s Rights Movement Movement that worked for greater rights and opportunities for women. Began with the Seneca Falls Convention in New York in 1848. Women worked for rights like suffrage (the right to vote), equality in clothing, and property rights
Nat Turner’s Rebellion A man who believed that he had a theophany and he was supposed to lead the slaves to freedom. He went to an armory and killed 60 people. Later he was found and executed.
Abolition Movement A movement to end slavery led by William Garrison. He wrote the liberator and was in favor of emancipation. People worked to spread the word about abolitionist movement by going to churches and handing out pamphlets. Many people were against slavery and spoke at these meetings (Fredrick Douglass, the Grimke Sisters). The movement met much resistance in the South and the North ended up going to war with the South.
Public School Reform Horace Mann was a senator from Massachusetts who wanted to give children the adequate schooling needed. He advances public schools around the country. With his help double the amount of kids attended schools, teachers were not allowed to punish, teachers were trained professionally, and all schools were tax supported. This really increased the literacy rate in the US as other states followed his plan.
Penitentiary Reform Dorothea Dix was a woman who in 1841was teaching Sunday school in prisons and she noticed that the prisoners weren’t receiving the right treatment and care that they needed. She worked to try and make prisoners feel sorrow for their sins (penitent means sorrow). After her, the Pennsylvania System and the Auburn System were created for prisoners. The Auburn System was more popular because it was cheaper.
Penn-Solitary reform You had your own room and yard in which to exercise
Auburn- Group reform Slept in your own room but worked with others during the day
Temperance Movement A movement to stop people from abusing alcohol. American Temperance Society was set up to help people to stop abusing it. Neal Dow Played a large role because in 1851 he passed the Maine law prohibiting any alcohol sales in the town of Portland. Many laws were passed after this in other states.
William Lloyd Garrison Was the leading abolitionist. He published the Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper. That way he could spread his ideas around the country. He founded the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Fredrick Douglass A former slave who spoke at abolitionist meetings across the country. He told personal accounts of slavery and touched many people’s hearts with his story.
Transcendentalism The belief that one can find more about themselves through nature. Leading members-Thoreau and Emerson.
Texas Independence Texas breaks off of Mexico because they want more independence from Santa Anna and his strict leadership. They form the Lone Star Republic headed by Sam Houston.
Oregon Territory Marcus and Narcissa Whitman went on the Oregon Trail out to Oregon Territory. They set up a compound along the way, attracting several other settlers to the West. Mountain men and others previously went through this territory and they explored the territory before the Whitmans.
Mexican-American war A war over the Texas, New Mexico, California territory. 1845-Zach Taylor sends his troops down to the Mexican border and Polk declared war. The US were much more powerful and they ended the war in 1847 after the siege of Mexico City. This Victory gave the US all of the Northern third of Mexico.
Manifest Destiny the belief that it is the United States’ destiny from God to have complete control of the United States. This Belief led to the expansion of the United States to the west
Early Western Migration Started by John Fremont because of the beauty that he described in the other lands. Early Migration was driven by Manifest Destiny. California Gold Rush happened in 1849 when people found out that there was Gold in California.
Compromise of 1850 Written by Henry Clay to compromise over issue of Slavery-California would be put in as a free state-New Mexico and Utah would be decided over popular sovereignty-The slave trade not slavery would be ended in Washington DC-A new Strict Fugitive Slave Law would be enforcedTexas sold New Mexican claims for $10 million
Republican Party A party formed that was against slavery and the Kansas-Nebraska Act. It was formed in 1854. Abe Lincoln was a republican president. They wanted Kansas to be admitted as a free state, and they were against popular sovereignty to decide on the issue of slavery.
Uncle Tom’s Cabin Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe about a slave named Uncle Tom and the harshness f slavery. This cause uprising in the North and their was a large push for the abolishment of slavery. This book was banned in the South. This made the South very upset and cause many people to look towards seceding. This book sold over 300,000 copies.
Dred Scott vs. Sanford(1857) Supreme Court Case between a Missouri Slave (Dred Scott) who was suing for his freedom from his owner. Scott had lived with his owner in a free state for a few years but was still enslaved. The Chief Justice was Robert B Taney and he ruler against Dred Scott because he was property so he could not sue, the case said the Missouri Compromise was Unconstitutional, and it was illegal for Congress to take property away from someone without due process.
Lincoln- Douglas Debates A series of seven debates between Stephen A. Douglas(the little Giant) and Abe Lincoln(Honest Abe). They were both running for the US senate position in Illinois in 1858.
Stephen Douglas Was in favor of Popular SovereigntyWanted to Annex Texaswanted the votes of democrats
Abe Lincoln Spoke of right and wrongNot for equal rights for blacks, he was for Natural rights for all (life, liberty, Property)
John Brown A man who wanted to lead a fight against slavery. He attacked Harper’s Ferry in Virginia because of its central location and he was captured by officials and killed. He had viewed himself as an angel of God. Tensions were raised more and Southerners began to prepare for a war. The Border Ruffians in Kansas also burned his home. In retaliation he killed 5 proslavery men in a nearby town
Secession South Carolina was the first state to leave (1860) because of the result of the election. They felt that they had no voice. They created the Confederate States of America in 1861. They were followed by 6 other southern states and Jefferson Davis was their president.
Nativism the belief that someone who is a native-born white American is superior to a newcomer.
Election of 1860 Democrats, Constitutional Unionists and Republicans all had candidates
Democrats in the Election of 1860 Stephen A. Douglas, John BreckinRidge
Stephen A. Douglas -Northern Democrat-Illinois-Wanted Popular Sovereignty to decide the issue of slavery
John BreckinRidge -Southern Democrat-Kentucky-Federal Government must protect slavery
Constitutional Unionists in the Election of 1860 John Bell
John Bell TenneseeFederal government should support slavery and defend the Union
Republicans in the Election of 1860 Abe Lincoln
Abe Lincoln IllinoisSlavery is not allowed
Underground Railroad A way to get slaves out of the South. They used railroad terms to disguise their movement. Harriet Tubman is one of the most famous for her courageous efforts to keep returning to the South to get hundreds of black slaves.
Popular Sovereignty A type of democracy where people of an area vote on how they would like things. This is important to slavery because people thought that they should have slavery in some states and not in others. This method does not work however as is seen in the Kansas Nebraska Act because it leads to violent protests and fights.
Kansas-Nebraska Act Senator Douglas introduced a bill to set up Nebraska and Kansas as two different states, Kansas being entered as a slave state and Nebraska as a free state. The bill was passed in 1854 and it nullified the Missouri Compromise because the area of Kansas had been free for over 30 years. Led to the creation of the Republican Party.
Bleeding Kansas Border Ruffians from Mississippi would enter into Kansas and persuade people to vote for slavery because Mississippi was a slave state. It exposed the weaknesses of Popular Sovereignty. Two governments had been created in Kansas and they had opposing views on slavery. The Proslavery Capital was Lecompton and the antislavery capital was Topeka. The bloody part of this was when Lawrence was burned by the Border Ruffians (wanted slavery). The fights went on for weeks as both sides attacked each other.
History Flashcards

A.T.I. The Cardiovascular System

A health care professional is reviewing the history of a patient who is about to begin furosemide (Lasix) therapy to treat hypertension. Which of the following drugs that the patient takes should alert the health care professional to take further action? Lithium (Lithobid) for bipolar disorderFurosemide is high-ceiling loop diuretic, increases sodium loss and can cause reabsorption of lithium, a mood stabilizer.
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking verapamil (Calan) to treat atrial fibrillation. The health care professional should tell the patient to avoid grapefruit juice while taking verapamil because it can cause hypotension
A health care professional is assessing a patient following the administration of nifedipine (Procardia). Recognizing the adverse effects of nifedipine, the health care professional should be prepared to administer which of the following drugs? Propranolol (Inderal) Administering a beta-adrenergic blocker will minimize the adverse effects by decreasing the cardiac oxygen demand.
When talking with a patient about taking epleronone (Inspra) to treat hypertension, the health care professional should include which of the following instructions? Avoid the use of salt substitutes. Many salt substitutes contain significant amounts of potassium and can cause hyperkalemia.
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking losartan (Cozaar) to treat hypertension. The health care professional should tell the patient to report which of the following indication of an adverse reaction to the drug? Facial EdemaCan cause angioedema often manifesting as redness and swelling around the eyes and lips. Patients should stop taking the drug and seek medical attention immediately.
When talking with a patient about taking amiodarone (Cordarone) to treat atrial fibrillation, which of the following should the health care professional tell the patient to avoid? Grapefruit JuiceIn particulary large amounts can cause toxicity of potassium channel blockers.
A health care professional is about to administer atenolol (Tenormin) to a patient who has hypertension. Which of the following assessments should the health care professional perform prior to giving the patient the drug? Apical PulseHealth care professionals should withhold the drug for an apical pulse rate slower than 60/min and notify the primary care provider.
While talking with a patient about drug therapy options for hypertension, the provider notes that the patient also has some manifestations of depression that require treatment. Which of the following antihypertensive drugs is inappropriate for the patient? Reserpine Severe depression and an increased risk for suicide are adverse effects of adrenergic neuron blockers.
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking ethacrynic acid (Edecrin) to treat heart failure. The health care professional should tell the patient to report which of the following indications of a potentially serious adverse reaction? Hearing LossThis medication is a high-ceiling loop diuretic similar in actions and effects to furosemide (Lasix), can cause ototoxicity, which can lead to permanent hearing loss.
A provider is considering the various drug therapy options for treating a patient’s cardiac dysrhythmia. He should be aware that which of the following antidysrhythmic drugs is appropriate only for short-term use because of its severe adverse effects with long-term use? ProcainamideThis is a poor choice because of its risk for serious adverse effects, including cardiotoxicity and atrial embolism.
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin captopril (Capoten) therapy to treat hypertension. When talking with the patient about taking the drug, the health care professional should tell her to report which of the following adverse effects because they can indicate a need to stop drug therapy? (Select all that apply.) rashdistorted tasteswelling of tonguedry cough
A patient who is taking digoxin (Lanoxin) develops ECG changes and other manifestations that indicate severe digoxin toxicity. Which of he following drugs should the health care professional have available to treat this complication? Fab antibody fragments (Digibind)AKA Digoxin Immune Fab binds to digoxin and blocks its action.
A health care professional should question the use of milrinone (Primacor) for a patient who currently has which of the following? Acute Myocardial Infarction
When talking with a patient about taking clonidine (Catapres) to treat hypertension, the health care professional should explain that discontinuing clonidine therapy abruptly can result in which of the following adverse effects? Hypertension
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin using transdermal nitroglycerin (Nitro-Dur) to treat angina pectoris. When talking with the patient about the drug, the health care professional should include which of the following instructions? (Select all that apply.) Apply the patch to a hairless area and rotate sites.Apply a new patch each morning.Remove the patch for 10 to 12 hr daily.
A health care professional is caring for a patient who has a glomerular filtration rate of 10 mL/min and a reduced urine output. The health care professional should question the use of hydrochlorothiazide for the patient because of which of the following characteristics of the drug? The drug does not promote diuresis for patients who have renal insufficiency.Adequate kidney function is essential to promote urine production and excretion effectively.
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking simvastatin (Zocor) to treat hypercholesterolemia. The health care professional should tell the patient to report which of the following indications of a serious adverse reaction that could warrant stopping drug therapy? Muscle PainIt can cause myopathy or pain in muscles and joints that can progress to rhabdomylosis. With this rare but serious side effect, muscle protein breaks down and its excretion causes kidney damage.
A patient who takes carvedilol (Coreg) for hypertension is about to begin taking an oral antidiabetes drug to manage newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. The health care professional should make sure the primary care provider is aware that the patient is at increased risk for which of the following if she takes both drugs? Hypoglycemia Carvedilol potentiates the hypoglycemic effects of insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs and can mask tachycardia in a patient who has hypoglycemia.
A health care professional is caring for a patient who has moderate to severe hypertension and is about to begin hydralazine therapy. The health care professional should monitor the patient for which of the following severe adverse reactions to the drug? A Lupus-Like SyndromeManifestations include facial rash, joint pain, fever, nephritis, and pericarditis. High doses make it more likely. Fluid retention and edema can also develop.
A health care professional should question the use of dobutamine for a patient who is receiving which of the following types of drugs? (Select all that apply.) Monoamine oxidase inhibitorgeneral anesthetictricyclic antidepressantbeta blocker
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is taking spironolactone (Aldactone) to treat hypertension. Which of the laboratory values should alert the health care professional to take further action? serum potassium level of 5.2 mEq/LThis level exceeds the reference range of 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L and warrants immediate intervention.
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking gemfibrozil (Lopid) to treat hypercholesterolemia. Which of the following instructions should the health care professional include when talking with the patient about the drug? (Select all that apply.) Report any new intolerance to fried foods.Report muscle tenderness.Expect periodic liver function testing.
A health care professional is caring for a pateint who is about to begin aliskiren (Tekturna) therapy to treat hypertension. The health care professional should monitor the patient for which of the following adverse effects of the drug? (Select all that apply.) hyperkalemiathroat swellingcough
A health care professional should question the use of nifedipine (Procardia) for a patient who has a history of which of the following? Unstable Angina PectorisThis medication can cause reflect tachycardia therefore it would be an adverse effect that can worsen angina pain because it increases cardiac oxygen demand.
A health care professional is caring for a patient who is about to begin taking propranolol (Inderal) to treat a tachydysrhythmia. The health care professional should caution the patient about taking which of the following type of over-the-counter drugs? AntacidsAntacids and vitamin C can decrease absorption.
History Flashcards

history 1.4

The Triangle Shirtwaist fire: brought in its wake much-needed safety legislation.
The word “Progressivism” came into common use around 1910: as a way of describing a loosely defined political movement.
The Progressive movement drew its strength from: middle-class reformers.
During the Progressive era: commercial farming grew.
Newspaper & magazine writers who exposed the ills of industrial & urban life, fueling the Progressive movement, were known as: muckrakers
All of the following people were “muckrakers” EXCEPT: Samuel Gompers.
The writer whose work encouraged the passage of the Meat Inspection Act was: Upton Sinclair.
During the Progressive era: new immigration from southern and eastern Europe reached its peak
Progressive-era immigration was part of a larger process of worldwide migration set in motion by all of the following forces EXCEPT: the annexation of the Philippines.
Which was the Ellis Island of the West? Angel Island.
In the early twentieth century, Angel Island in San Francisco Bay became known as the “Ellis Island of the West” and served as the main entry point for immigrants from: China.
Asian and Mexican immigrants in the early twentieth century: clustered in the West as agricultural workers.
Birds of passage were: immigrants who planned on returning to their homeland.
Most new immigrants who arrived during the early years of the twentieth century: lived in close-knit communities.
Which institution became a pillar of stability for the immigrants as they settled into the communities in American cities? Church.
Vaudeville is a: form of live entertainment.
Nickelodeons: were motion-picture theaters with a five-cent admission charge.
During the Progressive era: growing numbers of native-born white women worked in offices.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman claimed that the road to woman’s freedom lay through: the workplace.
The term “Fordism”: describes an economic system based on mass production and mass consumption.
The new concepts of a “living wage” and the “American standard of living”: argued that all Americans should be wealthy
The program that sought to streamline production & boost profits by systematically controlling costs & work practices was called: scientific management.
Why did workers experience the introduction of scientific management as a loss of freedom? Skilled workers under scientific management had to obey very detailed instructions.
A worker who crossed a picket line during a strike was called a: scab.
Which person was a Supreme Court justice and a Progressive reformer who advocated for the labor movement? Eugene V. Debs
In the early twentieth century, the Socialist Party advocated for all of the following EXCEPT: free college education.
By 1912, the Socialist Party: had yet to elect a member to Congress.
Eugene V. Debs was: a Socialist candidate for president.
Which statement about the American Federation of Labor in the early twentieth century is FALSE? The AFL proposed an overthrow of the capitalist system.
The Industrial Workers of the World: advocated a workers’ revolution.
Which statement about the textile strike in Lawrence, Massachusetts, in 1912 is FALSE? The strikers asked the American Federation of Labor for assistance.
What brought about a new wave of sympathy for the plight of women in the garment industry in Lawrence, Massachusetts? The appearance of malnourished children evacuated from Lawrence shocked the public.
The Ludlow Massacre was a tragic confrontation between: Colorado mine workers and militia.
The battle for free speech among workers in the early twentieth century: was led by the Industrial Workers of the World.
Feminism: sought to attack the traditional roles of sexual behavior for women.
Margaret Sanger was a: birth-control advocate.
What Progressive-era issue became a crossroads where the paths of labor radicals, cultural modernists, & feminists intersected? Birth control.
Founder of the Society of American Indians, Carlos Montezuma: demanded that American Indians be left alone in order to be independent.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of Progressive reformers? Progressives pursued radical alternatives to capitalism.
All of the following statements about Urban Progressives are true EXCEPT they worked with political machines.
Progressive governor of Wisconsin, Robert La Follette, instituted all of the following reforms EXCEPT: promising lower taxes and less government interference.
All of the following measures expanded democracy during the Progressive era EXCEPT: literacy tests & residency requirements.
Electoral reform during the Progressive era: actually limited many Americans’ right to vote.
Jane Addams: advocated for the working poor.
All of the following statements about Jane Addams and Hull House are true EXCEPT: She believed that immigrant women primarily needed union protection.
History Flashcards

1.07 US History

Which government intervention would most likely cause problems for inhabitants of the region marked Indian territory A. Homestead act
Considering the map above what conclusions can be drawn about The native Americans journey to the reservation C. Some Native Americans traveled by boat at least part of the way
Which battle represents the Native Americans final attempt to resist the Armed Forces C. Battle of the wounded knee
Which One of the following would be another appropriate name for the Dawes act D. Native American assimilation act
What was the goal of the Dawes act B. Assimilate Native American into the dominant culture
How could the federal government have made the Dawes act more successful B. By making it illegal for Native Americans to sell their land to speculators
What can you predict about settlement patterns in this period of time A. The reservations will move westward
Native Americans were promised New lands in the west where they would be protected from land hungry homesteaders A. Pull factor in migration
What affect did the federal government desire from the implementation of the Dawes act C. Reduce their responsibility toprovide for Native American welfare
The excerpt below is from the Dawes act which was written in 1887 based on the passage in addition to the land what other benefits could Native American receive from the Dawes act A. U.S. Citizenship
Excerpt from the Dawes Act SEC. 10 What conclusion can be drawn from this excerpt? C. The federal government maintained some power over Native American land.
History Flashcards

World History FLVS 02.01 Medieval Hierarchy

All of the following represent innovations in land use in the Middle Ages except the ownership by individuals of small farms
How might a second-born son hope to achieve success under the system of primogeniture? He could seek training to become a knight in the military.
Which of the following describes the rights and legal standing of a European villein? They worked the land on behalf of their lord but did not receive wages.
Why did earlier historians consider the Medieval Period the “Dark Ages”? A limited amount of written records survived to shine light on this time period.
Which of the following individuals would likely have had the most education in the medieval society? A nun
Which of the following individuals would likely have had the least power in the medieval hierarchy? The wife of a villein
History Flashcards

American History Chapter 9 Guided Readings

Social welfare reform movement People/Groups involved: YMCA, Salvation Army, and Florence KelleySuccesses: Built libraries, sponsored classes, built swimming pools and hand ball courts. Fed poor people in soup kitchens. Illinois Factory Act in 1893.
Moral reform movement People/Groups involved: Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), Carry Nation, Frances Willard, and Anti-Saloon League.Successes: Sought to close saloons to cure society’s problems.
Economic reform movement People/Groups involved: American Socialist Party, Ida M. Tarbell, Eugene V. Debs.Successes: Exposed corruption in industry.
Movement for industrial efficiency People/Groups involved: Louis D. Brandeis, Frederick Winslow Taylor, and Henry Ford.Successes: Assembly line, better wages.
Movement to protect workers People/Groups involved: National Child Labor Committee, Muller v. Oregon, and Bunting v. Oregon.Successes: Laws about who could work and workman’s comp.
Movement to reform local government People/Groups involved: Tom Johnson and Hazen PingreeSuccesses: property tax, lower fares for public transportation, public utility.
State reform of big business People/Groups involved: Robert M. La Follette, Charles B. Aycock, James S. Hogg.Successes: Laws relating to the railroads.
Movement for election reform People/Groups involved: William S. U’ren Successes: Initiative–> referendum–> recall; 17th amendment; secret ballot
Job types for lower class women domestic, farm, factory
Job types for middle and upper class women white collar jobs, office, schools
Job types for African American women factor and farm
Job types for immigrants domestic, labor, factory, take in borders, farm, piece work
How did educational opportunities for middle- and upper-class women change? They had a higher chance of getting into colleges. Also, the only alternative for women was no longer marriage, the majority sought higher education. Many women went to school and applied their skills to social reforms.
How did these new opportunities affect the lives of middle- and upper-class women. Women applied their skills to social reforms. Also, some women who were college educated never married and kept their independence.
What 3 strategies were adopted by the suffragists to win the vote? 1.) Try to convince state legislatures to grant women the right to vote.2.) Women pursued court cases to test the 14 amendment.3.) Women pushed for a national constitutional amendment to grant women the right to vote.
What did each strategy produce? 1.) Women were granted voting rights.2.) Congress ruled that women were citizens but denied that being a citizen automatically gave you the right to vote.3.) Elizabeth Cady Stanton managed to have the amendment introduced in CA, but it was later killed.
1902 coal strike Steps Roosevelt took: threatened to take over mines and negotiate arbitration committee.Legislation: Arbitration Committee
Trusts Steps Roosevelt took: filed 44 suits under the Sherman Antitrust Act.Legislation: Sherman Antitrust Act
Unregulated big business Steps Roosevelt took: forced the great railroad combination in the NW to break apart and focused on bringing big business under stronger regulation.Legislation: Elkin’s Act; Interstate Commerce Act; Hepburn Act
Dangerous foods and medicines Steps Roosevelt took: appointed a commission of experts to investigate the meatpacking industry.Legislation: Meat Inspection Act; Pure Food and Drug Act
Shrinking wilderness and natural resources Steps Roosevelt took: created the Forest Service, promoted conservation.Legislature: National Reclamation Act; Newlands Act
Racial discrimination Steps Roosevelt took: Allowed black units to be formed during the war. Legislation: none
Why did they support or oppose Taft? Progressives: The Payne-Aldrich Tariff opposed conservation, supported J. Cannon.Conservatives: Supported Taft, opposed progression, higher tariff.
What party did they form or stay with? Progressives: Bull Moose Party and ProgressivesConservatives: Republicans
Who did they run for President? Progressives: Theodore RooseveltRepublicans: William Howard TaftDemocrats: Woodrow WilsonSocialist: Eugene V. Debs
What was their candidate’s position on big business? Progressive: supported government action to supervise big business, but didn’t oppose all big business monopolies.Republicans: favored business but worked to break up trusts.Democrats: supported small business & free market competition; thought that all big business monopolies were evil.Socialist: felt big business was evil and that the solution involved doing away with capitalism and distributing wealth more equally among the people.
Federal Trade Act to prohibit unfair methods, acts, and practices
Clayton Antitrust Act establish regulations about what business could and could not do and to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act
Underwood Tariff reduced levies on manufactured goods and to eliminate duties on most raw materials
16th Amendment let Congress put a tax on the money people made
Federal Reserve Act to prevent another run on the banks by allowing the Fed. to print money out of nothing and to give the bankers political power internationally.
Which 3 new developments finally brought the success of the woman suffrage movement within reach? The National Women’s Trade Union League is established; Alice Paul and Lucy Burns form the Congressional Union; and the federal woman suffrage amendment was passed.
Which constitutional amendment recognized women’s right to vote? 19th amendment
How did Wilson retreat on civil rights? During his campaign he won the support of the white liberals and black intellectuals of the NAACP by promising to treat blacks equally and address lynching. Once he was in office he opposed a federal anti-lynching legislation, and some places went back to being segregated.
History Flashcards

US History Chapter 18

Queen Liluokalani Queen of Hawaii who was forced to give up her throne because of American business interests
United States Imperalism belief that the U.S. should take economic, political and military control power over weaker countries
Alfred T. Mahan U.S. admiral who supported the growth of the U.S. Navy and colonies overseas
William Seward Secretary of State who purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million
Pearl Harbor U.S. naval bases built in Hawaii
Jose Marti Cuban poet and journalist who led a rebellion for independence from Spain
Valeriano Weyler general sent from Spain to Cuba to restore order
yellow journalism exaggeration of the news to make it more exciting
de Lome letter letter written by a Spanish diplomat criticizing President McKinley as being weak
U.S.S. Maine American warship in Cuba that was believed to have been exploded by Spain
George Dewey American naval commander who led the attack on the Phillipines
Rough Riders fighting unit led by Theodore Roosevelt in Cuba
San Juan Hill location where the Spanish surrendered to the U.S. in Cuba
Treaty of Paris (1898) treaty that ended the Spanish American War
Foraker Act law that ended military rule and set up a civil government in Puerto Rico
Platt Amendment amendment in the Cuban constitution that gave the U.S. special privileges
Protectorate a country that is partly controlled by a stronger country
Emilio Aguinaldo Filipino rebel who led a revolt against the U.S.
John Hay US Secretary of state who sent the Open Door notes
Open Door notes message sent by John Hay calling for China’s ports to remain open and for China to remain independent in order to protect US trading rights
Boxer Rebellion Chinese rebellion against Western influence
Panama Canal channel across Central America connecting the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans
Roosevelt Corollary Roosevelt’s extension to the Monroe Doctrine that stated that the US has the right to protect its economic interests in Latin America
dollar diplomacy policy of intervening in other countries to protect U.S. business interests
Francisco “Pancho” Villa Mexican revolutionary that led a rebellion against Carranza, new leader of Mexico, and his followers also killed American troops
Emiliano Zapata Mexican rebel, led a peasant revolt, understood the misery of peasant villagers
John J. Pershing general sent by President Wilson to capture Pancho Villa
Anti-Imperialist League group of antiimperialists that advocated for isolationism, thought it was wrong for the U.S. to rule other people without their consent
The Spanish American War caused the United States to be recognized as a world power