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History Flashcards

American History Chapter 9 Guided Readings

Social welfare reform movement People/Groups involved: YMCA, Salvation Army, and Florence KelleySuccesses: Built libraries, sponsored classes, built swimming pools and hand ball courts. Fed poor people in soup kitchens. Illinois Factory Act in 1893.
Moral reform movement People/Groups involved: Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU), Carry Nation, Frances Willard, and Anti-Saloon League.Successes: Sought to close saloons to cure society’s problems.
Economic reform movement People/Groups involved: American Socialist Party, Ida M. Tarbell, Eugene V. Debs.Successes: Exposed corruption in industry.
Movement for industrial efficiency People/Groups involved: Louis D. Brandeis, Frederick Winslow Taylor, and Henry Ford.Successes: Assembly line, better wages.
Movement to protect workers People/Groups involved: National Child Labor Committee, Muller v. Oregon, and Bunting v. Oregon.Successes: Laws about who could work and workman’s comp.
Movement to reform local government People/Groups involved: Tom Johnson and Hazen PingreeSuccesses: property tax, lower fares for public transportation, public utility.
State reform of big business People/Groups involved: Robert M. La Follette, Charles B. Aycock, James S. Hogg.Successes: Laws relating to the railroads.
Movement for election reform People/Groups involved: William S. U’ren Successes: Initiative–> referendum–> recall; 17th amendment; secret ballot
Job types for lower class women domestic, farm, factory
Job types for middle and upper class women white collar jobs, office, schools
Job types for African American women factor and farm
Job types for immigrants domestic, labor, factory, take in borders, farm, piece work
How did educational opportunities for middle- and upper-class women change? They had a higher chance of getting into colleges. Also, the only alternative for women was no longer marriage, the majority sought higher education. Many women went to school and applied their skills to social reforms.
How did these new opportunities affect the lives of middle- and upper-class women. Women applied their skills to social reforms. Also, some women who were college educated never married and kept their independence.
What 3 strategies were adopted by the suffragists to win the vote? 1.) Try to convince state legislatures to grant women the right to vote.2.) Women pursued court cases to test the 14 amendment.3.) Women pushed for a national constitutional amendment to grant women the right to vote.
What did each strategy produce? 1.) Women were granted voting rights.2.) Congress ruled that women were citizens but denied that being a citizen automatically gave you the right to vote.3.) Elizabeth Cady Stanton managed to have the amendment introduced in CA, but it was later killed.
1902 coal strike Steps Roosevelt took: threatened to take over mines and negotiate arbitration committee.Legislation: Arbitration Committee
Trusts Steps Roosevelt took: filed 44 suits under the Sherman Antitrust Act.Legislation: Sherman Antitrust Act
Unregulated big business Steps Roosevelt took: forced the great railroad combination in the NW to break apart and focused on bringing big business under stronger regulation.Legislation: Elkin’s Act; Interstate Commerce Act; Hepburn Act
Dangerous foods and medicines Steps Roosevelt took: appointed a commission of experts to investigate the meatpacking industry.Legislation: Meat Inspection Act; Pure Food and Drug Act
Shrinking wilderness and natural resources Steps Roosevelt took: created the Forest Service, promoted conservation.Legislature: National Reclamation Act; Newlands Act
Racial discrimination Steps Roosevelt took: Allowed black units to be formed during the war. Legislation: none
Why did they support or oppose Taft? Progressives: The Payne-Aldrich Tariff opposed conservation, supported J. Cannon.Conservatives: Supported Taft, opposed progression, higher tariff.
What party did they form or stay with? Progressives: Bull Moose Party and ProgressivesConservatives: Republicans
Who did they run for President? Progressives: Theodore RooseveltRepublicans: William Howard TaftDemocrats: Woodrow WilsonSocialist: Eugene V. Debs
What was their candidate’s position on big business? Progressive: supported government action to supervise big business, but didn’t oppose all big business monopolies.Republicans: favored business but worked to break up trusts.Democrats: supported small business & free market competition; thought that all big business monopolies were evil.Socialist: felt big business was evil and that the solution involved doing away with capitalism and distributing wealth more equally among the people.
Federal Trade Act to prohibit unfair methods, acts, and practices
Clayton Antitrust Act establish regulations about what business could and could not do and to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act
Underwood Tariff reduced levies on manufactured goods and to eliminate duties on most raw materials
16th Amendment let Congress put a tax on the money people made
Federal Reserve Act to prevent another run on the banks by allowing the Fed. to print money out of nothing and to give the bankers political power internationally.
Which 3 new developments finally brought the success of the woman suffrage movement within reach? The National Women’s Trade Union League is established; Alice Paul and Lucy Burns form the Congressional Union; and the federal woman suffrage amendment was passed.
Which constitutional amendment recognized women’s right to vote? 19th amendment
How did Wilson retreat on civil rights? During his campaign he won the support of the white liberals and black intellectuals of the NAACP by promising to treat blacks equally and address lynching. Once he was in office he opposed a federal anti-lynching legislation, and some places went back to being segregated.

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