History Flashcards

AP US History Ch 14/16

The Wilmot Proviso Proposal to prohibit slavery in any land acquired in the Mexican War, but southern senators, led by John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, defeated the measure in 1846 and 1847. It Failed
The Compromise of 1850 Slavery becomes outlawed in Washington D.C., California is admitted as a free state, and Utah and New Mexico will determine whether slavery is allowed through popular sovereignty. Also, the Fugitive Slave Law is passed.
The Kansas Nebraska Act It would create 2 new territories to allow the government to build a railroad. It split Nebraska into the territories of Nebraska and Kansas and allowed for popular sovereignty there
Bleeding Kansas Was a sequence of violent events involving Free-States and pro-slavery “Border Ruffians” elementsmthat took place in Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri between roughly 1854 and 1858 attempting to influence whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave state
The Dred Scott Decision Dred Scott was a slave who had moved to Illinois and Wisconsin (free states) which his owner. When his owner died, lawyers argued before the Supreme Court that since Scott had lived in a free state, he was a free man. The Supreme Court argued that since Scott was black, he was not a citizen of the US and could not file a case. The Justices said slaves were property. The court also ruled that Congress did not have power to outlaw slavery in ANY territory. (this meant the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional.)
John Brown abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
Black Codes Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Ku Klux Klan a secret society of white Southerners in the United States, Organization formed by ex-Confederates in opposition to Reconstruction that terrorize African-Americans and their supporters. Resulted in the Force Acts, and it displayed the Southern feeling of resentment.
Johnson’s impeachment Andrew Johnson fired someone who was on tenure, only republican, democrats looking for reason to get rid of him. violation of the tenure of office act caused this
Freedmen’s Bureau Aided southerns who were homeless, educated blacks and established schools, helped settle arguments between whties and black
Reconstruction the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
13th amendment 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
14th amendment 1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
15th amendment citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
History Flashcards

History Of The World In Six Glasses

BEER 1. How is the discovery of beer linked to the growth of the first “civilizations”? Beer became socially and ritually important to hunter-gathers so in order to ensure the availability of grain, hunter-gathers switched to farming. Beer helped to make up for the decline in food quality as people took up farming, provided a safe form of liquid nourishment, and gave groups of beer-drinking farmers a comparative nutritional advantage over non-beer drinkers. 2. What does this history of beer in the ancient world tell us about the early civilizations? What it tells us really are essentially two things: first, that somehow ancient civilizations understood in some form or manner that the water was not “safe” to drink in some regions. Second, it tells us they learned in some other manner that by boiling the water and then making a “spirit” that was likely unknown to them at the time (at least at the first few attempts) that it was in fact “safer” to drink and was therefore able to quench a necessary component in sustaining life.3. What sources does the author use to gather his information on the use of beer? Standage uses sources from the Stone Age period to gather information on the use of beer. He focuses on the transition that led to humanity shifting from hunting and gathering to agriculture. It also shows how the cultivation of grain led to fermentation. 4. What were some of the uses of beer by ancient cultures? Nourishment? Ritual? Religious? The ancient Egyptians made at least 17 types of beer and at least 24 varieties of wine. Alcoholic beverages were used for pleasure, nutrition, medicine, ritual.5. How did beer “civilize” man, according to Standage? Beer became socially and ritually important to hunter-gathers so in order to ensure the availability of grain, hunter-gathers switched to farming. Beer helped to make up for the decline in food quality as people took up farming, provided a safe form of liquid nourishment, and gave groups of beer-drinking farmers a comparative nutritional advantage over non-beer drinkers.6. What is the relationship between beer and writing, commerce, and health? Regarding health, the alcohol content made it less likely to harbor pathogens such as those which caused dysentery. It was said that it was better to drink beer and die of cirrhosis of the liver in your forties than drink water and die of dysentery in your twenties.
WINE 1. How did the use of wine differ from that of beer in ancient Greece and Rome? Beer was for common folk and wine for the ‘important’ people. Beer was used as a source of barter for tradesmen and was considered an important food source.2. How was wine used by the Greeks? It was their drink of choice when the water quality couldn’t be guaranteed, a social lubricant, used in games at gatherings, and for making vinegar.3. How and why did wine develop into a form of a status symbol in Greece? In Greece, beer was considered to be the drink of the “common” folk. Wine became the fancier, more sought after drink that eventually led it to become a sort of status symbol for those who could afford to drink it.4. How was wine consumed? What does this tell us about the ancient Greek culture? It was the main beverage in Ancient Greece as the water was often unsafe to drink on its own so the addition of wine, helped to kill bacteria. Brewing beer had similar advantages, but grain was scarce in Greece and not to be wasted while grapes, like almonds and olives grow on otherwise useless land. The ancient tales of the coming of wine to Greece with Dionysus are full of warnings of its power, especially as women were associated with the cult. To read between the lines the message seems to be that if you let wine be your master you will be destroyed by women5. How did the use of wine in Roman culture differ from that of ancient Greece? As Rome entered its golden age of winemaking and era of expansion, the “democratic” view of wine started to emerge in Roman culture with wine being viewed as a necessity for everyday life and not just a luxury meant to be enjoyed by a few as the Greeks believed. Romans believed that even slaves should have a weekly ration of over a gallon (5 liters) of wine a week. However the reasons was more for the dietary health of the slaves and maintenance of their strength rather their personal enjoyment.6. What is the relationship between wine and empire, medicine, and religion. There are many complex relationships between the topics of wine, empire, medicine, and religion. Each of these is a substantial topic in itself, and the possible interconnections are endless. Wine is a part of the Catholic ritual of the Eucharist, in which wine symbolizes, or becomes, the blood of Christ. Christianity got its start in the Roman Empire and became a dominant force in Europe after the conversion of Emperor Constantine to Christianity. Wine has often been used as either a pain killer or an antiseptic, so it has two different medical uses. Religion is also used at times for medical purposes, since many people believe that their religion is a source of miraculous cures, faith healing, etc.
SPIRITS 1. What is the origin of distilled spirits? Distilled spirits were originally created by ancient Arab chemists by distilling wine and using the resulting fluid as medicine or as an alchemical ingredient.2. What is the connection between spirits and colonization? Spirits were popular on long ocean voyages because they were both more compact and less likely to spoil than other alcoholic drinks. Additionally, many early colonies grew sugar cane. The byproducts of processing the sugar could be fermented and distilled to make a concentrated alcoholic drink.3. How was the production of spirits connected to slavery? The African traders who sold slaves were paid in spirits (first in brandy, later in rum).4. What role did spirits play on the high seas? Spirits were more compact and less likely to spoil than other alcoholic drinks. They could also be mixed with water to make water more palatable.5. In the 18th century, how did spirits help Britain have a more superior navy than France? British sailors drank grog, which contained lime juice. The vitamin C in lime juice helped prevent scurvy. Since the French sailors didn’t have a consistent source of vitamin C, they were more susceptible to contract scurvy.6. Why were spirits an important staple in Colonial America? When the colonies were founded, there was no initial source of alcohol and the colonists were left drinking water. After the discovery of rum, it soon became the drink of choice in the colonies because it was inexpensive.7. How did rum play a role in the American Revolution? Molasses was used in rum production. The British tax on molasses drove up the cost of rum, angered the colonies, and set a precedent for the breaking of British tax acts.8. What were the negative effects/uses of spirits? (Use entire chapter to answer this) Spirits strengthened the slave trade. The consumption of rum led to alcohol addiction in both settlers and natives
COFFEE 1. Who did Europeans get coffee from and how did it spread to Europe? Europeans smuggled coffee beans in from the Arab Port Of Mocha when they visited. From there, the popularity of coffee had spread to Italy, France and Indonesia.2. Why was it so important to Europe’s development that many people’s beverage of choice switched from alcohol to coffee? Abandoned Turk trench lines after the siege of Vienna contained coffee beans, and the drink spread quickly throughout Europe. It proved to be much cheaper than the ingredients for alcohol.3. Describe coffee’s effect on the global balance of power (in terms of commerce). Coffee has not only impacted the world socially, but it provides financial means for many countries who export their coffee beans. 4. How did coffee play a pivotal role in the scientific revolution? (give lots of detail) Before coffee there were two choices for hydration – water or alcoholic beverage. The water was not purified so often made people sick. The alcohol would purify the beverage but made everyone drunk. Coffee, boiling water actually, gave a new source of fluids that was not alcoholic, was not full of microbes, and the caffeine gave a little kick.5. How did coffee play a pivotal role in the ‘financial revolution’? The new drink of coffee, and the shops in the City of London where it was sold became the furnaces of the financial revolution. Wealthy, influential men met in these coffee shops and began to trade in stock and shares, and, famously, insurance. Lloyds of London, the World’s largest insurance market, began in Edward Lloyd’s coffee shop.6. How did coffee play a pivotal role in the French Revolution? (give lots of detail and go into the Enlightenment) People got together in cafe salons to discuss issues. In Britain the new coffeehouses of the time were called ‘penny university’, as people of poorer means gathered there to overhear discussions from students and professors; in an effort to learn very cheaply. In Paris, the equivalent would be people of poorer means, especially in the Latin Quarter, might overhear radical discussions of revolutionary ideas and revolution itself.
TEA 1. When did tea first become a mainstream drink in Asia? In Europe? Tea first arrived in Europe from Asia in 1610, when Dutch traders brought some back to the Netherlands.2. How did the consumption of tea in Europe differ from how it was consumed in China or Japan? Tea consumption in Europe and Asia from 2000 to 2005 differed greatly from one another. In Europe: for all 5 years, it was almost level at 0.3 to 0.4 million short tons per year. However, in Asia, it climbed from 2.3 to 2.8 million short tons per year, over the same 5 years time interval.3. If tea arrived in Europe around the same time as when coffee did, why did it not find the immediate success that coffee had? Analyst believes that the tea industry could learn from coffee. The tea industry could take a leaf out of coffee’s innovation book as it looks to target the value potential in the premium market, according to Euromonitor.4. How did tea transform English society? Who were its main consumers and what were some of the new rituals that surrounded tea? Because of the lack of potable water in England when tea (and coffee) was introduced around the year 1650, its use forced those drinking it to boil the water – sterilizing it. It caused people to rely less on alcoholic beverages and therefore quite likely lengthened people’s lives and allowed them to have better use of their faculties.5. How was tea an integral part of the Industrial Revolution? Tea was an integral part of the industrial revolution because it was one of the major items of trade during these revolution. Tea was widely grown in the British farms and it provided great investment opportunities which propelled the industrial revolution.6. What was the connection between tea and politics? The tea was used to embody the power of British imperialism. This was to show the fate of tea-based economies in India and China. Tea was also the lubricant that kept the factories running smoothly.7. How was tea connected to the opium trade and the Opium War of 1839-1842? British merchants carrying no opium would buy tea in Canton on credit, and would balance their debts by selling opium at auction.8. What role did the tea trade and production play in the British rule over India? The tea trade and production of tea played an important role in the British rule of India because since Tea was such an important commodity to Britain they needed to get it from either India or China. The tea trade, after all, was the main reason Britain began to rule over India to begin with. Britain no longer wanted to have to rely on China for their supply of tea. Britain began to look for alternatives to China. What they found was India. They were able to produce enough tea to be able to almost completely rely on India instead of China for their tea.
COCA-COLA 1. What was the origin of coke? John Pemberton, a pharmacist, created a syrup intended for medical use. However, customers found the syrup to be particularly tasty and started to use it for non-medicinal purposes. Upon realization of this, he commercialized and marketed Coca Cola as a drink.2. How was this beverage used medicinally and what were the additives? Word of this magic beverage, that Pemberton’s bookkeeper had named “Coca-Cola”, spread rapidly throughout the city of Atlanta. But Pemberton’s health was failing, and he had also become addicted to morphine, so when Asa Candler, owner of an Atlanta drug store chain, offered him $2,300 for the Coca-Cola syrup formula, he accepted. Candler soon created a company to mass-produce the syrup in order to meet the urgent demand of Atlanta pharmacies.3. What was the relationship of coke and World War II? By the time World War II began, Coca-Cola was being bottled in 44 countries. During the war, 64 bottling plants were set up around the world to supply the troops.4. How was coke thought of by the communist during the Cold War? Coca-Cola was seen as ‘too American’ for Communists, Pepsi was the main exported soft drink to Europe for much of the Cold War.5. What is meant by “globalization in a bottle”? Even Coca-Cola, widely seen as a standard-bearer of global business. It was a Coke CEO, the late Roberto Goizueta, who declared in 1996: “The labels ‘international’ and ‘domestic’…no longer apply.” His globalization program, often summarized under the tagline “think global, act global,” has included an unprecedented amount of standardization.6. How did Coca-Cola materialize into an American value? How did this help and hurt Coca-Cola? (and, in some ways, America itself?) Brilliant marketing can be credited with Coca-Cola being seen as a valued part of American culture. Commercials, advertisements, etc. have all helped to bring Coca-Cola into American homes and key moments in the country’s history.
Epilogue-Water 1. Describe how the scientific advancements of the 19th century brought the history of beverages full circle. Scientific advancements in the 19th century pinpointed the causes behind contaminated water, creating the possibility of drinking water safely.2. Which water’s quality is more tightly controlled-tap or bottled? Tap water’s quality is more tightly controlled than bottled water.3. How many people have no access to safe water today? 1.2 billion people lack access to safe water today.4. How has access to water affected international relations? Clean water access has both started wars and created treaties (sometimes when the countries were still at war with each other).
History Flashcards

“The Gilded Age” US History

Laissez Faire Policy allowing business to operate with little or no government interference
Industrialization Development of a system which supports machine production of goods; grew fast in the 19th century
Monopoly Complete control of a product or business by one person or group
Transcontinental RR A train route across the United States, finished in 1869. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. The two lines met in Utah.
Promontory Utah where the two lines of transcontinental railroad met
Corporate business, commercial
Corporation A business recognized by law that has many of the rights and responsibilities as individuals
Gilded Age A name for the late 1800s, coined by Mark Twain to describe the tremendous increase in wealth caused by the industrial age and the ostentatious lifestyles it allowed the very rich. The great industrial success of the U.S. and the fabulous lifestyles of the wealthy hid the many social problems of the time, including a high poverty rate, a high crime rate, and corruption in the government.
Gilded covered in gold; but not gold underneath the thin layer of gold
The Great Gatsby is a novel by American author F. Scott Fitzgerald. The book takes place from spring to autumn 1922, during a prosperous time in the United States known as the Roaring Twenties. It’s about a self-made man who woos and loses a married aristocratic woman (Daisy) he loves
Steam engine invention that allowed factories to run machines and rely on manufacturing made industrialization possible
John Rockefeller Creator of the Standard Oil Company who made a fortune on it and joined with competing companies in trust agreements that in other words made an amazing monopoly.
Andrew Carnegie, industrialist Scottish American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry in the late 19th century.
JP Morgan An influential banker and businessman who bought and reorganized companies. His US Steel company would buy Carnegie steel and become the largest business in the world in 1901
Vanderbilt A railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
Coal Access to rivers, iron ore, timber, and _____ was a major determining factor in which countries were able to industrialize during this period.
Coal mines During the 1800’s, the most dangerous work conditions were found here.
Meat packing industry in Chicago Upton Sinclair’s novel entitled The Jungle exposed dangerous workplace conditions in-
Muckrakers 1906 – Journalists who searched for corruption in politics and big business
raw materials the basic material from which a product is made.
sweat shop where employees are payed low wages for long hours, and under poor conditions
Distribution of wealth the manner in which wealth is divided among the members of the economy. Welath is unequally distributed: a few people have a great deal of wealth and most other have less
labor laws Laws which regulated how workers could be paid and treated
Sherman Antitrust Act First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900. The term was coined by writer Mark Twain in The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (1873), which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding.
Westward expansion settlers began moving westward beyond the Appalachian Mountains
Homestead Act 1862 – Provided free land in the West to anyone willing to settle there and develop it. Encouraged westward migration. (160 acres)
America’s canals waterways used to move goods to places far from the factories.
The growth was astounding. From the end of RECONSTRUCTION in 1877 to the disastrous PANIC OF 1893, the American economy nearly doubled in size. New technologies and new ways of organizing business led a few individuals to the top. The competition was ruthless. Those who could not provide the best product at the cheapest price were simply driven into bankruptcy or were bought up by hungry, successful industrialists.
Child labor laws Enacted after the first three decades of the 19th century to limit the number of hours children could be required to work
Ruthless cruelhaving no compassion or pity
SOCIAL DARWINISTS believed that the humans who were the most fit became the most successful. Whatever people had the necessary skills to prosper — perhaps talent, brains, or hard work — would be the ones who would rise to the top. Why were some people poor? To the Social Darwinist, the answer was obvious. They simply did not have the required skills.
This was an era of CONGRESSIONAL SUPREMACY. The REPUBLICAN PARTY dominated the Presidency and the Congress for most of these years. Both houses of Congress were full of representatives owned by big business.Laws regulating campaigns were minimal. Big money bought a government that would not interfere. Similar conditions existed in the states. City governments were dominated by political machines. Members of a small network gained power and used the public treasury to stay in power — and grow fabulously rich in the process.
Political machine
Prosperity wealth, success
Panic of 1893 Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
overextending when a person or a business stretches their credit beyond the financial guidelines?
Credit An arrangement to receive cash, goods, or services now and pay for them in the future.
economic collapse The financial panic and downfall of a country
regulations The formal instructions that government issues for implementing laws. (rules)
regulations in business
History Flashcards

History-Napoleonic code and Congress of Vienna

nationalism love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it. The doctrine that nations should act independently (rather than collectively) to attain their goals and the aspiration for national independence felt by people under foreign domination.
napoleonic code This was the civil code put out by Napoleon that granted equality of all male citizens before the law and granted absolute security of wealth and private property. Napoleon also secured this by creating the Bank of France which loyally served the interests of both the state and the financial oligarchy, a comprehensive and uniform system of laws established for France by Napoleon, Took away many of the rights gained by women, aimed at reestablishing the “family monarchy”. Modified after Napoleon’s defeat.
congress of Vienna an international conference (1814-15) held at Vienna after Napoleons banishment to Elba, with Metternich as the dominant figure, aimed at territorial resettlement and restoration to power of the crowned heads of Europe. Conservative, reactionary meeting, led by prince metternich, restore europe to prerevolution time, Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon, The Quadruple Alliance met, to discuss the Balance of Power. Great Britian got to have their conquered colonies, Austria got Venetia and Lombardy and Polis lands, and Prussia and Russia were compensated.
prince of metternich 1773 – 1859Austrian Statesman Born in Coblenz, Germany, Prince Metternich studied at Strasburg and Mainz and became Austrian foreign minister in 1809. Metternich took a prominent part in the Congress of Vienna and dominated European politics from 1814 to 1848. He acted as the restorer of the ‘Old Regime’ and the reconstruction of Europe after the Napoleonic wars. To safeguard the balance of power Metternich formed a ‘Holy Alliance’ between the monarchies of Austria, Russia, Prussia and France. After the fall of the imperial government in 1848, he fled to England, and in 1851 retired to his castle of Johannesberg on the Rhine.
History Flashcards

History Chap. 1 quiz

In the 17th century, European explorers in the Mississippi and Ohio valleys were amazed to find hundreds of large ceremonial mounds.
The West African empire of Ghana became noted for its extensive urban settlement, elaborate sculpture and metalwork, and long-distance commerce.
At the time of early contact with Europeans, Africa was a continent marked by diverse and elaborate cultures.
As a result of the development of agriculture in the Americas, the members of native tribes. Grew in numbers and founded separate societies.
The social organization of African societies included Kings and noblemen at the top, a great mass of people who worked as farmers, and urban craftsmen who supported the elites.
In which of the following categories did the Iroquois practice a communal lifestyle? land use, hunting, and work.
By the 1430s, Prince Henry’s captains had reached The Madeira, Azores, and Canary Islands.
The results of creating a more cohesive political confederacy for the Iroquois included increasing village stability.
The little Ice Age impacted native societies in the Americas in all the following ways EXCEPT: Native women lost power.
Which of the following characteristics of a matrilineal tribe in North America is NOT accurate? newly married men remained in their father’s household.
What activities did women perform in the tribal economy of native societies? Control of the raising and distribution of crops.
In contrast to the fate of Africans enslaved in the Americas, the slaves in West African societies. did not suffer a permanently servile condition.
In contrast to the Europeans, most natives of North America believed that land serves as the basis for common sustenance
The small country of Portugal was an early leader in navigation despite having a population of only 1 million
The Spanish encountered the Aztec people in Mexico in the year 1519
The Pueblo people of the American Southwest, encountered by the Spanish in the 1540s, used irrigation canals, dams, and hillside terracing to water their arid maize fields.
Africans in West Africa could be enslaved for punishment for crimes.
Many ancient humans migrated to the Americas over a land bridge.
The potential for conflict between Europeans and the indigenous people in the North America stemmed primarily from different values concerning the relationship to the environment, property, and personal identity.
Which of the following nations became the early leader of European exploration? Portugal
History Flashcards

World History Unit 3 Lesson 2

Which of the following had the greatest impact on transportation during the second industrial revolution The internal combustion engine
Which factors caused the population of Europe to soar between 1800 and 1900 Medicine advanced, and the death rate fell
Why did some workers organize unions To improve their working conditions
How did Thomas Edisons invention of the light bulb affect industry Electric lights made it possible for factories to run after dark
Which of the following was a consequence of the second industrial revolution New sewer systems decreased death rates
Which of the following is a difference between the first industrial revolution and the second The first used iron as the primary metal for industry while the second used steel
In which way did Joseph Lister improve standards during the industrial revolution He discovered that infections could be prevented with antiseptics
Which of the following statements describes the changing relationship between business and labor during the 1880s The increasing need for skilled labor made it necessary for big business to listen to the demands of workers
How did population distribution change as a result of the industrial revolution Cities grew rapidly as people moved from rural areas to work in industry
Which factor changed the layout of large cities during the second industrial revolution The desire of the middle class for parks, department stores, and wider streets
History Flashcards

American History

New France was characterized by more peaceful European-Indian relations than existed in New Spain.
The repartimiento system established by the Spanish in the mid-1500s recognized Indians as free but required them to perform a fixed amount of labor.
According to Bartolomé de Las Casas Spain had caused the deaths of millions of innocent people in the New World
In 1517, the German priest _______________ began the Protestant Reformation by posting his Ninety-Five Theses, which accused the Catholic Church of worldliness and corruption Martin Luther
Which of the following was NOT a technique that Spanish conquistadores used to conquer Native American empires Negotiating treaties
Which one of the following statements about African slavery within Africa is FALSE Only men were taken for the slave trade
Europeans generally believed all of the following about Indians EXCEPT that Indians had enormous potential to assimilate European ways.
Anne Hutchinson: opposed Puritan ministers who promised salvation through church attendance and moral behavior rather than through divine grace
Patroonship in New Netherland meant that shareholders received large estates for transporting tenants for agricultural labor
In their relations with Native Americans, the Dutch concentrated more on economics than religious conversion
How did the Dutch manifest their devotion to liberty They supported freedom of religion in their colony
Which European country dominated international commerce in the early seventeenth century? The Netherlands
The Spanish set up outposts from Florida to South Carolina in part because Spanish missionaries hoped to convert local Native Americans to Christianity
The New Laws of 1542: commanded that Indians no longer be enslaved in Spanish possessions.
Which one of the following statements about Spanish America is true Over time, Spanish America evolved into a hybrid culture—part Spanish, part Indian, and, in some areas, part African
Alarmed by the destructiveness of the conquistadores, the Spanish crown replaced them with a more stable system of government headed by lawyers and bureaucrats
The Coumbian Exchange was: the transatlantic flow of plants, animals, and germs that began after Christopher Columbus reached the New World.
Why did European exploration of the New World proceed so rapidly after Columbus’s discoveries? Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press enabled the rapid dissemination of information.
What motivated the Portuguese to begin exploration to find a water route to India, China, and the East Indies? To eliminate the Muslim “middlemen” in the luxury goods trade
Slavery in Africa: involved the enslavement of criminals, debtors, and war captives.
Under English law in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, women surrendered their legal identities when they married.
In England, social inequality was part of a hierarchical society
Which one of the following is true of religion in seventeenth-century Europe Religious uniformity was thought to be essential to public order
In Europe on the eve of colonization, one conception of freedom, called “Christian liberty,” mingled ideas of freedom with servitude to Jesus Christ—concepts that were seen as mutually reinforcing, not contradictory.
Which statement about gender relations is FALSE for most Native American societies Tribal leaders were almost always women
Native American religious ceremonies were related to the Native American belief that sacred spirits could be found in living and inanimate things.
When Europeans arrived, many Native Americans tried to use them to enhance their standing with other Native Americans
Before the arrival of Columbus, Native North Americans had elaborate trade networks
Which one of the following statements is true of the Aztec capital, Tenochtitlán It had a complex system of canals, bridges, and dams, with the Great Temple at the center.
Adam Smith recorded in 1776 that the “two greatest and most important” events in the history of mankind were the discovery of America and the Portuguese sea route around Africa to Asia
The marriage between John Rolfe and Pocahontas: was seen in England as a sign of Anglo-Indian harmony and missionary success
Which one of the following is true of indentured servants: Their masters could determine whether they could marry
A consequence of the English Civil War was an English belief that England was the world’s guardian of liberty
As a prelude to the English Civil War, leaders of the House of Commons accused the king of imposing taxes without parliamentary consent
The Magna Carta granted many liberties, but mainly to lords and barons
The Half-Way covenant of 1662 did not require evidence of conversion to receive a kind of church membership
Boston merchants challenged the subordination of economic activity to Puritan control
In the seventeenth century, New England’s economy centered on family farms and also involved the export of fish and timber
The Massachusetts General Court reflected the Puritans’ desire to govern the colony without outside interference
New England towns much of the land remained for collective use or to be divided among later settlers
In early seventeenth-century Massachusetts, freeman status was granted to adult males who were landowning church members
The Mayflower Compact established a civil government for the Plymouth colony
What was Puritan leader and Massachusetts Bay Governor John Winthrop’s attitude toward liberty He saw two kinds of liberty: natural liberty, the ability to do evil, and moral liberty, the ability to do good
Why did Puritans decide to emigrate from England The Church of England was firing their ministers and censoring their writings
Puritans followed the religious ideas of: John Calvin
What was Virginia’s “gold,” which ensured its survival and prosperity tobacco
It can be argued that conflict between the English settlers and local Indians in Virginia became inevitable when the Native Americans realized that England wanted to establish a permanent and constantly expanding colony, not just a trading post.
To entice settlers to Virginia, the Virginia Company established the headright system, which provided land to settlers who paid their own passage
The Virginia House of Burgesses was the first elected legislative body in the English colonies
As leader of the Jamestown colony, John Smith alienated many of the colonists with his autocratic rule
Which of the following statements is true about the early history of Jamestown The death rate was extraordinarily high
Which English group did the most to reshape Native American society and culture in the seventeenth century the settlers farming the land
What did English settlers in North America believe was the basis of liberty? land
As a result of British landowners evicting peasants from their lands in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries efforts were made to persuade or even force those who had been evicted to settle in the New World, thereby easing the British population crisis
Which one of the following spurred increased European interest in colonizing North America national and religious rivalries
Why did England consider Spain its enemy by the late 1500s because of religious differences: England had officially broken with the Roman Catholic Church, while Spain was devoutly Catholic
Queen Mary of England, predecessor of Elizabeth I temporarily restored Catholicism as the state religion of England.
Which of the following was true of agriculture in the colonies during the eighteenth century Because New York’s landlords had taken over so much land, agriculture grew more slowly in New York than in other colonies.
What role did Native Americans play in British imperial wars during the eighteenth century? They did much of the fighting in the wars.
Once Massachusetts became a royal colony in 1691 it was required to abide by the English Act of Toleration, which displeased many Puritan leaders
Bacon’s Rebellion was a response to worsening economic conditions in Virginia
Carolina grew slowly until rice as a staple crop was discovered to be extremely profitable
As English colonial society became more structured in the eighteenth century, what were the effects on women Women’s work became more clearly defined as tied closely to the home
By the eighteenth century, colonial farm families almost always owned at least three slaves
Which of the following was true of the colonial elite they controlled colonial government
By the eighteenth century, consumer goods such as books and ceramic plates were increasingly available in the colonies
According to laws in the seventeenth-century Chesapeake free blacks had the right to sue and testify in court.
Ideas of race and racism in seventeenth-century England had not fully developed as modern concepts
The Scottish and Scotch-Irish immigrants to the colonies were often physicians, merchants, and teachers
The German migration to the English colonies led to the formation of many farming communities
Which of the following fits the description of a person most likely to have been accused of witchcraft in seventeenth-century New England a woman beyond childbearing age who was outspoken, economically independent, or estranged from her husband
In what ways did England reduce colonial autonomy during the 1680s A royal governor actually held power under the Dominion of New England
The Glorious Revolution of 1688 resulted mainly from the fears of English aristocrats that the birth of James II’s son would lead to a Catholic succession
Bacon’s Rebellion contributed to which of the following in Virginia the replacing of indentured servants with African slaves on Virginia’s plantations
Which of the following was true of small farmers in 1670s Virginia The lack of good land, high taxes on tobacco, and falling prices reduced their prospects
What ironic consequence did William Penn’s generous policies, such as religious toleration and inexpensive land, have They contributed to the increasing reliance of Virginia and Maryland on African slave labor
To Quakers, liberty was: a universal entitlement
How did English rule affect the Iroquois Confederacy After a series of complex negotiations, both groups aided each other’s imperial ambitions
“enumerate” goods: were colonial products, such as tobacco and sugar, that could only be exported to English ports.
According to the economic theory known as mercantilism the government should regulate colonial exports to promote national power
What was the impact of King Philip’s War Native Americans war tactics caused them to be viewed as brutal savages by most New Englanders.
Deists shared the ideas of eighteenth-century European Enlightenment thinkers, namely that science could uncover God’s laws that governed the natural order
Which of the following was a consequence of the Seven Years’ War strengthened pride among American colonists about being part of the British empire
What was the primary purpose of the Proclamation of 1763 to bring stability to the colonial frontier
What did Neolin, a Delaware Indian and religious prophet, tell his people they must reject? European technology and material goods
The French and Indian War began because some American colonists felt that France was encroaching on land claimed by the Ohio Company
By the eighteenth century, the Spanish empire in North America rested economically on trading with and extracting labor from surviving Native Americans
Revivalist preachers during the Great Awakening frequently criticized commercial society
The most famous Great Awakening revivalist minister was George Whitefield
John Peter Zenger’s libel trial probably would not have ended in his acquittal if he had attacked someone other than the colonial governor
Which one of the following did NOT contribute to the expansion of the public sphere during the eighteenth century? the founding of the California missions
During the eighteenth century, colonial assemblies became more assertive
“salutary neglect” meant British governments left the colonies largely alone to govern themselves
How did colonial politics compare with British politics Colonists tended to agree with the British that owning property was related to having the right to vote
How did John Locke reconcile his belief in natural rights and his support for slavery He believed that the free individual in liberal thought was the propertied white man
John Locke’s political philosophy stressed a contract system between the people and the government
“Republicanism” in the eighteenth-century Anglo-American political world emphasized the importance of ____________ as the essence of liberty active participation in public life by property-owning citizens
Slave resistance in the eighteenth century included rebellions in both northern and southern colonies that led to the deaths of several of those involved in planning the conspiracies
Which of the following is true of eighteenth-century slavery in South Carolina and Georgia Plantation slaves enjoyed far more autonomy than they did in other colonies, allowing them to maintain more of their African culture.
In the northern colonies, slaves were relatively few in number and dispersed among the white population in small holdings
Georgia was established by James Oglethorpe, whose causes included improved conditions for imprisoned debtors and the abolition of slavery
the tack system assigned slaves daily jobs and allowed them free time upon completion of those jobs.
The early South Carolina economy focused on the export of deerskins and furs to England as well as on the export of Indian slaves to the Caribbean.
Tobacco plantations in the Chesapeake region helped make the Chesapeake colonies models of mercantilism.
Which of the following is a true statement about the Atlantic slave trade’s effect in West Africa It helped lead to the rise of militarized states in West Africa, whose large armies preyed upon their neighbors in order to capture slaves.
The Boston Massacre occurred when British soldiers fired into a mob and killed a number of Boston residents.
Why did colonists object to the Tea Act By paying it, they would be acknowledging Great Britain’s right to tax the colonists without their consent
The Committees of Safety were part of a series of efforts by the Continental Congress to promote unity and to take action against enemies of liberty
Washington’s defeat of Cornwallis at Yorktown destroyed British public support for the war
Cornwallis was defeated at Yorktown because he had no land or water escape route
During the Revolutionary War, tensions between backcountry farmers and wealthy planters gave the British hope that they might be able to enlist the support of southern Loyalists
After the Battle of Saratoga, the focus of the war shifted to the South, where the British captured Savannah that year
A key consequence of the Battle of Saratoga was France became an ally to the United States
The Olive Branch Petition was addressed to King George III and reaffirmed American loyalty to the crown
John Adams recommended George Washington as commander of the Continental army because the fact that Washington was from Virginia could help unify the colonists
What were the Suffolk Resolves a set of resolutions, urging Massachusetts citizens to prepare for war
Crispus Attucks: has been called the first martyr of the American Revolution
The “Daughters of Liberty” was the name given to women who spun and wove to create their own clothing rather than buy British goods.
The Declaratory Act rejected Americans’ claims that only their elected representatives could levy taxes
The Sons of Liberty was the creation of several ambitious but not-too-wealthy New York merchants
What contribution did the Stamp Act episode make to the colonists’ concept of liberty The Stamp Act Congress insisted that the right to consent to taxation was essential to people’s freedom.
The Stamp Act created such a stir in the colonies because it was the first direct tax Parliament imposed on the colonies
The Sugar Act alarmed colonists, in part because it threatened the profits of colonial merchants already in economic trouble
Virtual representation was the idea that each member of Britain’s House of Commons represented the entire empire, not just his own district
What major event first led the British government to seek ways to make the colonies bear part of the cost of the empire The Seven Years’ War
History Flashcards

U.S. History Honors Chapter 19

What was the Alliance for Progress? JFK’s program that gave economic aid to Latin America
What did the Warren Commission conclude? that Oswald was the “lone killer” of JFK
How did Kennedy respond to missiles in Cuba? He ordered a quarantine to prevent more missiles, and eventually missiles were removed in exchange for a non-invasion.
What did the Civil Rights Act of 1964 accomplish? outlawed discrimination in public places and employment
What did the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 do? altered the immigration quota system set up in the 1920s
What issues did Warren Court address? JFK’s assassination
What happened at the Bay of Pigs? Eisenhower authorized the CIA to plan an overthrow of Cuba, and it was an utter disaster. (Cubans that had moved to the U.S. fought.) Cuba knew it was coming, and it was badly mismanaged.
What was Kennedy’s major domestic agenda? He was troubled by high levels of poverty. He also worked to pass a Civil Rights Bill and to start a space program.
What effect did the Cold War have on the American space program? The U.S. and the Soviet Union were in a space race to develop technology to land on the moon 1st. The U.S. landed Louis Armstrong on the moon 1st.
What was the first act passed regarding Johnson’s War on Poverty? the Economic Opportunity Act, which created Job Corps(trained 16-21 yr olds with job skills, VISTA(domestic peace corps), and Head Start(helped underprivileged kids prepare for school)
Who benefited from the Elementary and Secondary Education Act? Schools in poor neighborhoods received funds.
Great Society President Johnson’s goals in the areas of healthcare, education, the environment, discrimination, and poverty.
Fidel Castro leader of Communist regime in Cuba
deficit spending practice of a nation paying out more money than it is receiving in revenue
Civil Rights Act became a law in summer of 1964, outlawed discrimination in voting, education, and public accommodations, also created EEOC and prohibited discrimination based on gender
Richard M. Nixon ran against JFK for Republicans in 1960 presidential election and lost because of Kennedy’s charisma, was from a lower class background
Warren Commission committee that investigated the assassination of JFK
flexible response defense policy allowing for the appropriate action in any size or type of conflict
Berlin Wall dividing wall built by East Germany in1961 to isolate West Berlin from Communist-controlled East Berlin
Equal Pay Act 1963 law that required both men and women to receive equal pay for equal work
Medicaid federal program created in 1965 to provide low-cost health insurance to poor Americans if any age
Lyndon Johnson JFK’s vice president, who became president after JFK’s assassination and won against Barry Goldwater in 1964, had vision for America called the Great Society
New Frontier JFK’s plan aimed at improving the economy, fighting racial discrimination and exploring space
History Flashcards

Art History: Gothic Art II [Quiz]

What was Suger’s purpose in reconstructing the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis? He wanted to create a work of art worthy of the church’s holy treasures.
What is an archetype? A model for something.
What is special about the Amiens cathedral? It is an archetypical Gothic cathedral.
Who was Robert de Luzarches? He simplified, clarified, and unified the plan of Amiens Cathedral.
What distinctively “Gothic” feature can be seen in the image below? First true flying buttresses.
What innovative suggestions from Abbot Suger can be seen in the image below? The details of the sculptures and the rose stained glass window .
In the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, the shrines were moved from the ______ to the ______. Crypt; High altar.
What significant change took place in the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis? Three portals were added to the western facade.
Who is depicted in the above image? Abbor Suger.
Why is the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis considered to be truly Gothic in style? The new choir, composed of exceptional stained glass windows and liturgical ornamentation.
Two cathedrals are pictured above: The Cathedral of Notre Dame on the left, and Amiens Cathedral on the right. Based on the images, which of the following is the major difference between the two cathedrals? Notre Dame emphasizes horizontal lines, while Amiens emphasizes vertical lines.
What is a lancet window? A tall narrow window with a pointed arch at the top.
Which of the following was an innovation of Saint-Denis? All of the Above.
What is pictured above? The Cathedral of Notre Dame.
History Flashcards

US History Chapter 20 “The Twenties”

Under President Coolidge, the national economy boomed.
What was the significance of Harlem? Harlem was a central place for african americans to voice concerns about racial problems.
What was the largest cultural split in 1920s America? Between urban Americans and rural Americans
How did the consumer economy of the 1920s affect the lives of women? It made life easier for urban women
What was the Teapot Dome Scandal? Involved transferring oil reserves from the Navy Department to the Interior Department and then forgot about the Navy’s needs.
Why is Louis Armstrong considered a jazz legend? For his ability to play the trumpet and subtle sence of improvisation
The “New Woman” of the 1920s rejected Victorian morality.
The American movie industry was controlled by a handful of huge studios in Hollywood, California.
Why did so many African Americans migrate north throughout the 1920s? For a chance at a better future
The demand for automobiles in the 1920s stimulated growth in many other industries.
President Coolidge believed that the creation of wealth benefited the nation as a whole.
In 1933, Congress repealed Prohibition with the Twenty-first Amendment.
The sense of group identity created by the Harlem Renaissance formed a basis for later progress for blacks in America.
Presidents Harding and Coolidge favored policies that aided the growth of business.
The literature of the Harlem Renaissance explored the pains and joys of being black in America.
In 1920, America’s first radio station was an immediate success.
Buying stock on margin remained profitable as long as stock prices rose.
Where had most African Americans in 1920s Harlem come from? They had moved there from the South and the Caribbean
In the 1920s, how did most national leaders hope to go about avoiding war? By avoiding close interaction with other nations
Which of the following statements about women in the 1920s is true? Not all women wanted to be flappers, but many wanted to challenge politica, economic, social, and educational boundaries
Jazz was An American hybrid of African American and European music forms.
At its heart, the Scopes Trial was a clash between religion and science.
What was the condition of America’s economy following World War I? There was brief recession, followed by economic growth
Which of these was a major difference between urban and rural lifestyles in the 1920s? Urban Americans had more free time
Abstract art was an expression of Modernism.
The Teapot Dome oil scandal involved which two officials? Edwin Denby and Albert Fall
Under President Coolidge, the concerns of Mexican Americans and African Americans were largely ignored.
As the 1920s progressed, farm incomes declined.
Why did Marcus Garvey’s movement fall apart? There was no effective leadership after Garvey was deported to Jamaica
Which best describes the changing attitudes of people living in developing suburbs? They became more consercative and more politically active